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Table 1 Plants said to have been used against internal parasites in the Nordic countries; their scientific names and names in English and in the Nordic languages.

From: Plants as De-Worming Agents of Livestock in the Nordic Countries: Historical Perspective, Popular Beliefs and Prospects for the Future

Plant family Scientific name English Swedish Norweigan Danish Finnish Icelandic Host Target Part used Reference
Lichens            
  Cetraria islandica Iceland moss islandslav islandslav lav * jäkälä fjallagrös * M H W 8, 9, 33, 36,
            37, 41
Ferns            
Dennstaedtiaceae Pteridium aquilinum bracken fern örnbräken * einstape * ørnebregne * sananjalka * arnarburkni M H,C R 9, 21, 35, 45
Dryopteridaceae Dryopteris carthusiana toothed wood fern skogsbräken broddtelg Smalbladet mangeløv metsäalvejuuri *      31
  D. expansa spring wood fern nordbräken sauetelg Finbladet mangeløv isoalvejuuri * flekkaburkni     31
  D. filix-mas male fern träjon * ormetelg * Almindelig mangeløv * kivikkoalvejuuri * stóri burkni * M,A,S,H H,N,C,T R 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 30, 31, 33, 35, 44, 45, 53, 54, 70
Polypodiaceae Polypodium vulgare polypody stensöta * sisselrot engelsød kallioimarre * köldugras M H,C R 45, 49
Coniferous trees            
Pinaceae Picea abies spruce gran gran * rødgran kuusi * rau∂greni M,A H J 29, 55
  Pinus sylvestris pine tall * furu skovfyr mänty * skógarfura M C H,P,T 45, 49
Cupressaceae Juniperus communis juniper en * einer * enebær * kataja * einir * M,A,C,H H,N,C B,R,P 9, 14, 25, 34, 44, 45, 53
  J. sabina savin sävenbom   sevenbom * rohtokataja sabínueinir C,H,P   W 9
Trees, shrubs            
Salicaceae Populus tremula aspen asp osp * bævreasp haapa * ösp M,H H,N,C L,P 34, 45
  Salix spp willow sälg vier pil * paju * vi∂ir * M,S,H H,C,T L,P 9, 33, 45
Myricaceae Myrica gale sweet gale pors pors * porse * suomyrtti mja∂arlyng M,H H W,L,F 9, 35
Betulaceae Alnus glutinosa alder al or el * tervaleppä rau∂elri S T H 9
  Betula pendula silver birch vårtbjörk hengebjørk vorte-birk rauduskoivu *   M C L,J,P 45
  B. pubescens downy birch glasbjörk bjørk dun-birk * hieskoivu * birki * M,S H,C L,J,P,C 9, 33, 37, 45, 50
Corylaceae Corylus avellana hazel bush hassel hassel hassel * pähkinäpensas heslivi∂ur H   L 9
Grossulariaceae Ribes nigrum blackcurrant svarta vinbär solbær solbær musta viinimarja * sólberjarunni M C B 45
  R. rubrum redcurrant röda vinbär hagerips ribs * punainen viinimarja rifs M    9
Rosaceae Prunus padus bird cherry hägg hegg hæg tuomi * heggur M C B,P 45
  Pyrus communis pear päron pære pære * päärynä perutré S N O 9
  Sorbus aucuparia rowan rönn rogn røn pihlaja * reynir M C P 45
Buxaceae Buxus sempervirens boxwood buxbom buksbom buksbom * puksipu fagurlim H   L 9
Rhamnaceae Frangula alnus buckthorn brakved trollhegg tørst paatsama * porstatré M C P 45, 53
Thymelaeaceae Daphne mezereum mezeron tibast tysbast * pebertræ näsiä * töfratré M H,C B,P 34, 35, 45, 55
Oleaceae Fraxinus excelsior ash tree ask * ask ask saarni * askur M H,C L,P 45, 49
Caprifoliaceae Sambucus nigra black elder fläder svarthyll hyld * selja * svartyllir M,S C,T B 9, 45
Herbaceous plants            
Cannabaceae Humulus lupulus common hops humle * humle humle * humala * humall M,S H,C,T W,R,C 9, 45, 49
Urticaceae Urtica dioica stinging nettle brännässla * stornesle stor nælde * nokkonen stórnetla M,S H,T W,S 9, 23, 44, 49
  U. urens small nettle etternässla smånesle * liden nælde rautanokkonen brenninetla * M H W,S 41, 55
Polygonaceae Rumex acetosa green sorrel ängssyra engsyre rødknæ * suolaheinä * túnsúra M,P H,C L,F,R 9, 45
Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium ambrosioides goosefoot citronmålla melde gåsefod savikka *      31
  C. bonus-henricus good king Henry lungrot * stolt henrik stolthenriks-gåsefod hyvänheikinsavikka hinriksnjóli M H,C W 49
  C. rubrum red goosefoot rödmålla * rødmelde rød gåsefod punasavikka   M H W 49
Portulacaceae Portulaca oleacea Common purslane portlak * portulakk portulak vihannesportulakka portúlakka M H W 44
Caryophyllaceae Agrostemma githago corncockle klätt klinte klinte * aurankukka akurstjarna M    9
Ranunculaceae Hepatica nobilis hepatica blåsippa blåveis anemone * sinivuokko blá-anemóna M    9
Fumariaceae Corydalis intermedia corydalis smånunneört * lerkespore lærkespore hentokiurunkannus*   M H,C R 45, 49
  Fumaria officinalis Common fumitory jordrök * jordrøyk læge-jordrøg peltoemäkki reykjurt M C W 20
Brassicaceae Armoracia rusticana horseradish pepparrot pepperrot peberrod * piparjuuri piparrót * H H R 9, 41
  Brassica spp cabbage kål * kål kål * kaali, nauris * kál M H, C S, R 9, 44, 45
  Cardamine hirsuta hairy bitter-cress ängsbräsma rosettkarse roset springklap mäkilitukka lambaklukka *   H L 8, 36, 37
  C. pratensis polemonioides cuckooflower polarbräsma polarkarse polarkarse pohjanlitukka hrafnaklukka * M H L 33, 41
  Descurainia sophia flixweed stillfrö * hundesennep finbladet vejsennep liitutilli * þefjurt M H,N,C S 22, 45, 49
  Lepidium sativum garden cress kryddkrasse * matkarse karse * vihanneskrassi karsi M,S H,T W,S 9, 44
  Raphanus sativus niger garden radish rättika * reddik ræddike * retikka radísa C,H H R 9, 44
  Sisymbrium officinale hedge mustard vägsenap vegsennep vejsennep * rohtopernaruoho götudesurt M    9
Crassulaceae Rhodiola rosea roseroot rosenrot rosenrot * rosenrod ruusujuuri burnirót C H R 55
  Sempervivum tectorum house leek taklök * takløk husløg * mehitähti húslaukur M C W 9, 44
Rosaceae Agrimonia eupatoria agrimony småborre * åkermåne agermåne * maarianverijuuri   M H W 9, 44, 49
  Fragaria vesca Wood strawberry smultron markjordbær skov jordbær * mansikka * villijar∂arber M C B 9, 45
  Potentilla anserina silverweed gåsört * gåsemure gåse-potentil ketohanhikki tágamura M H W 44
  P. erecta tormentil blodrot * tepperot tormentil * rätvänä bló∂mura M,S H,T W,R 9, 44
  Rubus chamaemorus cloudberry hjortron molte multebær lakka * múltuber M C B 45
  R. idaeus red raspberry hallon bringebær hindbær * vadelma * hindber M C B 9, 45
  Sanguisorba officinalis great burnet blodtopp * blodtopp læge kvæsurt punaluppio bló∂kollur H H R 30
Fabaceae Vicia sativa common vetch fodervicker fôrvikke vikke * vikkeri fó∂urflækja H   W 9
Rutaceae Ruta graveolens common rue vinruta vinrute rude * ruutakasvi rú∂ujurt M    9
Clusiaceae Hypericum perforatum Perforate St.John's-wort Äkta johannesört * prikkperikum Prikbladet perikon * mäkikuisma jónsmessurunni M H F,H 9, 49, 51
  H. maculatum Imperforate St.John's-wort Fyrkantig johannesört firkant-perikum kantet perikon särmäkuisma * flekkjagullrunni M C   45
Violaceae Viola odarata sweet violet luktviol marsfiol marts-viol * tuoksuorvokki ilmfjóla M    9
Cucurbitaceae Cucumis sativus cucumber gurka agurk agurk kurkku * agúrka M C S 45
  Cucurbita pepo pumpkin Pumpa gresskar mandel-græskar * kurpitsa * grasker M N,C S 9, 45
Apiaceae Anethum graveolens dill dill dill dild * tilli dill C    9
  Angelica archangelica angelica kvanne kvann kvan väinönputki hvönn * M,H H S,R 8, 32, 33, 36, 37, 41
  Anthriscus cerefolium chervil dansk körvel * hagekjørvel kørvel * maustekirveli gar∂akerfill M H W 9, 44
  Apium graveolens celeriac selleri hageselleri selleri * selleri bla∂selja M    9
  Carum carvi caraway kummin karve * kommen * kumina * kúmen M H,C W,S 9, 34, 45
  Coriandrum sativum coriander koriander koriander koriander * korianteri kóriandra M    9
  Daucus carota carrot morot * gulerot * gulerod * porkkana * gulrót M,P H,C R 9, 35, 44, 45, 49, 55
  Foeniculum vulgare fennel fänkål fennikel fennikel * fenkoli fennikka S T   9
  Levisticum officinale lovage libbsticka * løpstikke løvstikke * liperi tröllatrygg∂ M H S 9, 44
  Petroselinum crispum parsley persilja persille persille persilja * steinselja C P   29
Ericaceae Calluna vulgaris heather ljung * røsslyng lyng * kanerva beitilyng S T   9, 49
  Vaccinium myrtillus blueberry blåbär blåbær blåbær mustikka * a∂albláberja-lyng M C B 45
  V. oxycoccos cranberry tranbär tranebær tranebær karpalo *   M C B 45
  V. uligunosum bog bilberry odon blokkebær mosebølle juolukka * bláberjalyng M C B 45
  V. vitis-idaea lingonberry lingon tyttebær tyttebær puolukka * rau∂berjalyng M C B 45
Gentianaceae Centaurium littorale Seaside centaury kustarun tusengylden tusingylden* isorantasappi köldublóm H    9
  Gentianella campestris field gentian fältgentiana bakkesøte Bredbægret ensian ketokatkero maríuvöndur * H H R 8, 32, 33, 36, 37
Menyanthaceae Menyanthes trifoliata marsh trefoil vattenklöver * bukkeblad * bukkeblad * raate * horbla∂ka * M,S,H,P H,C,T W,L,R 4, 8, 9, 32, 33, 36, 37, 41, 45, 52, 55
Verbenaceae Verbena officinalis vervain läkeverbena * jernurt jernurt tarhaverbana járnurt M H W,F 44
Lamiaceae Glechoma hederacea ground-ivy jordreva krossknapp korsknap * maahumala krosshnappur H   W 9
  Hyssopus officinalis hyssop isop * isop isop * iisoppi isópur M H,N W 9, 44
  Leonurus cardiaca motherwort hjärtstilla løvehale Almindelig hjertespand* nukula   M    9
  Melissa officinalis lemon balm citronmeliss sitronmelisse hjertensfryd* sitruunamelissa hjartafró C    9
  Mentha crispa mint krusmynta * kattemynte mynte * minttu   M N W 9, 44
  Nepeta cataria catnip kattmynta * lækjekatte-mynte katteurt * aitokissanminttu kattarmynta M H W 9, 44
  Origanum vulgare wild majoram kungsmynta bergmynte Almindelig merian * mäkimeirami kjarrmynta M    9
  Salvia spp sage salvia salvie salvie * salvia salvía S T W 9
  Thymus serpyllum wild thyme backtimjan * kryptimian Smalbladet timian kangasajuruoho bló∂berg M H W 38
  T. vulgaris garden thyme trädgårds-timjan * kryddertimian havetimian timjami * gar∂abló∂berg M H,C W 38, 45
Solanaceae Hyoscyomus niger henbane bolmört bulmeurt bulmeurt * hullukaali skollarót H   S 9
  Nicotiana rustica small tobacco tobak tobakk tobak * tupakka bónda-tóbaksjurt S T R 9
  Solanum dulcamara Woody nightshade besksöta slyngsøtvier Bittersød natskygge * punakoiso eiturflækja M    9
  S. nigrum Black nightshade nattskatta svart søtvier Sort natskygge * mustakoiso húmjurt H   L,B 9
  S. tuberosum potato potatis potet kartoffel peruna * kartafla M C R 45
Scrophulariaceae Rhinanthus spp yellow rattle skallra kall skjaller * laukku lokasjó∂ur M    9
  Veronica anagallis-aquatica blue water speedwell vattenveronika vassveronika Lancetbladet ærenpris konnantädyke laugadepla * M H W 8, 36, 37
  V. chamaedrys Germander speedwell teveronika * tveskjegg-veronica Tveskægget ærenpris nurmitädyke völudepla M H W 44
Planataginaceae Plantago lanceolata English plantain svartkämpar smalkjempe * lancet-vejbred heinäratamo selgresi * M H L,R 8, 33, 35, 36, 41
  P. major great plantain groblad groblad * vejbred * piharatamo græ∂isúra * M H W,L,R 9, 35, 37, 41, 55
  P. maritima sea plantain gulkämpar strandkjempe strand-vejbred meriratamo kattartunga * M H L,R 8, 36
Valerianaceae Valeriana officinalis valerian vänderot * lege-vendelrot lægebaldrian* rohtovirmajuuri gar∂abrú∂a M,H H W,R 4, 9, 44, 49
Asteraceae Achillea millefolium yarrow rölleka * ryllik * røllike * siankärsämö vallhumall M H W,L,F 9, 34, 35, 38
  Artemisia abrothanum southernwood åbrodd * abrodd ambra aaprottimaruna   M N W 44
  A. absinthium wormwood malört * ekte malurt * malurt * mali *   M,C,S,H H,C W,L,S 5, 9, 25, 34, 44, 45, 49, 53, 55, 58
  A. vulgaris mugwort gråbo * burot gråbynke * pujo   M H W 9, 38, 49, 58
  Cnicus benedictus blessed thistle kardbenedikt * kardobenedikt* korbendikt * karvasohdake   M H W,L 9, 35, 44, 55
  Helianthus annus sunflower solros solsikke solsikke auringonkukka * sólfifill M C S 45
  Inula helenium elecampane ålandsrot alantrot * lægealant * isohirvenjuuri hálsurt M H R 9, 55
  Matricaria maritima sea mayweed kustbaldersbrå strand-balderbrå kamille * merisaunio baldursbrá * M H L,F 8, 9, 33, 36, 37, 41
  Senecio vulgaris Common groundsel korsört * åkersvineblom Almindelig brandbæger* peltovillakko * krossfífill M,C C L 9, 22, 45
  Silybum marianum milk thistle mariatistel mariatistel marietidsel * maarianohdake * maríupistill H   S 9, 53
  Tanacetum balsamita alecost balsamblad balsam * okseøje palsamipäivän-kakkara   M H W 35
  T. parthenium feverfew mattram * matrem matrem reunuspäivinkakkara   M H S 44
  T. vulgare common tansy renfana * reinfann * rejnfan * pietaryrtti * regnfang M,A,S,H H,N,C,T W,L,F,S 1, 4, 9, 10, 19, 30, 34, 35, 44, 45, 49, 53, 55, 58, 70
Liliaceae Allium cepa onion rödlök * rødløk * rödløg * punasipuli rau∂laukur M H W 9, 35, 44, 55
  A. porrum leek purjolök purreløk * purløg purjo bla∂laukur M H W 34
  A. sativum garlic vitlök * hvitløk * hvidløg * valkosipuli * hvítlaukur M,A W,N,C W 4, 9, 35, 44, 45, 55, 70
  A. ursinum ramson ramslök ramsløk * rams-løg karhunlaukka bjarnarlaukur M H W 34
  Asparagus officinalis asparagus sparris asparges asparges * ruokaparsa   M    9
  Iris pseudocorus iris svärdslilja * sverdlilje gul sværdlilje* keltakurjenmiekka gula sver∂lilja C,P H R 9, 30
Araceae Acorus calamus sweetflag kalmus kalmusrot kalmus kalmojuuri * kalmusrót M C R 45
Grasses            
Poaceae Elytrigia repens couch grass kvickrot * kveke Almindelig kvikgræs * juolavehnä húsapuntur M H W,R 9, 18
  Hordeum vulgare barley korn bygg byg * ohra bygg M    9
  Secale cereale rye råg rug rug * ruis rúgur M    9
  1. Host (if specified): M = human, A = animal, C = cattle, S = sheep, H = horse, P = pig.
  2. Target (if specified): H = helminths, N = nematodes, C = cestodes, T = trematodes, P = protozoa.
  3. Part used (if specified): W = whole plant, L = leaves, F = flowers, S = seeds, B = berries, H = shoots or buds, R = root or tuber, J = sap, P = phloem or bark, O = wood, C = charcoal or ashes, T = tar.
  4. * Indicates that the plant is mentioned in literature from that Nordic country.
  5. Note: Plants included in this table are based on generally historical reports. This does not imply endorsement by the authors in either their effectiveness against parasites, or safety for human and/or animal use.