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Table 1 Results from breeding studies A and B, including 262 and 363 cows, respectively showing the ratio between phaenotypically normal calves and calves having complex vertebral malformation (CVM).

From: Evaluation of the Inheritance of the Complex Vertebral Malformation Syndrome by Breeding Studies

  Study No. of calves
examined by breeder
No. of calves
examined by necropsy
Total
Stillborn, normal A 14 8 22
  B 6 19 25
Died day 1–7, normal A 0 3 3
  B 0 1 1
CVM affected A 5 10 15
  B 3 8 11
Alive 7 days old, normal A 226 0 226
  B 343 2 345
Total A 245* 21 266
  B 352# 30 382
  1. * Including 4 twins
  2. # Including 19 twins