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Table 2 Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from faecal samples from wild cervids (n = 19):E. faecium (n = 4); moose (n = 1) and red deer (n = 3), and E. faecalis (n = 15); moose (n = 2), red deer (n = 5) and roe deer (n = 8). The figures give the percentage distribution of isolates to the actual minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. Bold vertical lines denote breakpoints for resistance. White fields denote the range of dilutions tested for. MIC-values higher than the highest concentration tested for are given as the lowest MIC-value above the range. MIC-values equal to or lower than the lowest concentration are given as the lowest tested concentration.

From: Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Verocytotoxic Escherichia coli, and Antibiotic Resistance in Indicator Organisms in Wild Cervids

Antimicrobial Substance Bacterial species Resistant strains, % Distribution of Enterococcus isolates (%) to different MIC-values (mg/L)
    0.125 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024 ≥ 2048
Ampicillin E. faecium 0   25 25   50           
  E. faecalis 0    6,7 80 13,3           
Avilamycin E. faecium 0      50 50          
  E. faecalis 0     26,7 40 33,3          
Bacitracin E. faecium 25          75 25      
  E. faecalis 0         46,7 53,3       
Chloramphenicol E. faecium 0       25 75         
  E. faecalis 0       13,3 80 6,7        
Erythromycin E. faecium 0    50 25   25          
  E. faecalis 6,7    6,7 6,7 13,3 66,7     6,71      
Flavomycin E. faecium 100             100    
  E. faecalis 0      20 40 20 13,3 6,7       
Gentamicin E. faecium 0       75 25    NT2 NT NT    
  E. faecalis 0         53,3 40 NT NT NT 6,7   
Neomycin E. faecium 0       25 50 25     NT NT   
  E. faecalis 0          6,7 66,7 20 NT NT 6,7  
Narasin E. faecium 0   25   75            
  E. faecalis 0 6,7 20 73,3             
Oxytetracycline E. faecium 25     75       25      
  E. faecalis 6,7     46,7 46,7       6,7     
Streptomycin E. faecium 0          75 25   NT NT   
  E. faecalis 6,7           6,7 66,7 NT NT 20 6,7
Vancomycin E. faecium 0     50 25   25         
  E. faecalis 0     6,7 80 13,3          
Virginiamycin E. faecium 0    50 25 25           
  E. faecalis 100         53,3 46,7       
  1. 1 Enterococcus-strains with MIC > 4 using VetMIC-plates (National Veterinary Institute, Sweden) was retested using Etest strips (Biodisk, Solna, Sweden)
  2. 2 NT – Not Tested