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Table 1 Effect of increasing dietary content of bacterial protein meal and age on selected plasma parameters in growing pigs.

From: Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

   Diet Period   P-values
  n # P1 P2 P3 P4 1 2 3 4 RMSE Diet (D) Period (P)
Total protein [g/dl] 63 5.2 5.4 5.0 5.1 4.7C 5.0B 5.2B 5.8A 0.47 0.18 <0.001
Albumin [g/dl] 63 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.0B 2.9B 3.9A 4.4A 0.31 0.07 <0.001
Urea [mg/dl] 63 11.0 11.1 10.9 11.1 12.7A 9.8B 9.6B 12.0A 2.41 1.0 0.001
Ammonia [μmol/l] 63 285.0 288.3 252.6 274.6 300.5A 295.7A 277.1AB 227.2B 75.61 0.5 0.04
Alanine aminotransferase [U/l] 59§ 60.6 61.7 66.6 64.9 42.2B 75.8A 69.0A 66.7A 15.59 0.70 <0.001
Aspartate aminotransferase [U/l] 61 40.2 32.0 34.0 37.5 38.5AB 44.1A 31.2B 29.9B 13.87 0.41 0.03
Glucose [mg/dl] 63 103.3 106.8 113.6 111.6 95.0B 111.8A 117.7A 110.7A 11.46 0.07 <0.001
Creatine kinase [U/l] 50| 1027 930 749 721 413C 771B 1032AB 1211A 387 0.25 <0.001
Cholesterol [mg/dl] 62* 92.2 92.9 97.8 100.3 71.6B 100.5A 102.0A 109.0A 15.33 0.41 <0.001
HDLC [mg/dl] 59& 35.7 38.9 37.2 41.0 29.4C 41.8A 35.9B 45.8A 7.19 0.25 <0.001
LDL [mg/dl] 59& 49.5 50.6 53.7 52.0 37.7B 51.0A 60.2A 56.8A 12.20 0.81 <0.001
VLDL [mg/dl] 63 7.0 7.6 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.9 7.4 6.8 1.30 0.66 0.11
Cholesterol/HDL 59& 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.7AB 2.4B 2.9A 2.4B 0.44 0.64 0.02
Triglycerides [mg/dl] 63 35.7 37.8 37.0 37.6 37.7 39.4 36.8 34.2 6.56 0.82 0.18
Creatinine [μmol/l] 62* 82.3 85.1 85.6 87.5 84.4B 73.5C 70.4C 112.0A 9.47 0.50 <0.001
Uric acid [μmol/l] 61 62.0ab 65.8a 65.2a 55.3b 57.5B 52.2B 68.1A 70.4A 9.49 0.01 <0.001
Xanthine [μmol/l] 61 9.5 11.1 9.6 9.3 3.5B 5.3B 10.7A 20.0A 5.79 0.83 <0.001
Hypoxanthine [μmol/l] 62* 15.2 16.8 19.4 16.8 22.8A 25.5A 15.3B 4.5B 9.66 0.68 <0.001
  1. # One of the pigs was sick during one of the balance periods, so data from this pig were omitted from all datasets.
  2. § All data for one pig were omitted because of higher ALT levels in all periods; the pig was fed P4.
  3. Two values were characterized as outliers of the dataset and omitted.
  4. | Six samples could not be analysed and seven values were characterized as outliers of the dataset and omitted.
  5. * One value was characterized as an outlier of the dataset and omitted.
  6. &Four values were characterized as outliers of the dataset and omitted.
  7. The P-values for the interaction between diet and period and the fixed effect of block were non-significant, except for urea (P = 0.04 interaction effect between diet and period), uric acid (P = 0.01, block effect), and hypoxanthine (P = 0.01, block effect).
  8. Diet P1 was the control diet containing no BPM. On diets P2, P3, and P4 approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen was derived from BPM, respectively. The pigs weighed approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg in periods 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively.
  9. a, b Values with different superscripts differ significantly, effect of diet (P < 0.05).
  10. A, B, C Values with different superscripts differ significantly, effect of period (P < 0.05).