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Table 4 Causes of mortality in 46 puppies that died before 3 weeks of age, recorded by the breeder, from a population of 663 live born puppies of four breeds (Irish wolfhound, Leonberger, Labrador retriever and Newfoundland).

From: Canine neonatal mortality in four large breeds

  Age in days at death
  0–3 4–7 8–14 15–21
Dead < 1 hour 4 - - -
Diarrhoea 1 - - -
"Fading puppy syndrome" 3 5 1 -
Convulsions 1 - - -
Trauma* 3 3 1 -
Heart problem - - - 1
Starvation 6 - - -
Omphalocele 3 - 1  
Cleft palate 1 - - -
Low birth weight** 7 - - -
No cause given - 1 3 1
Sum 29 9 6 2
  1. * Smothered by the mother
  2. ** Birth weight less than 50% of the siblings