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Table 4 Descriptions of housing systems, their median scores and significance levels (Sig.) according to the final threshold model (see text).

From: Expert opinion as 'validation' of risk assessment applied to calf welfare

Description of housing systems Median Sig.
White veal housed individually in baby boxes (first 6–8 weeks), bucket fed (ie not suckling) 3.00 a
White veal in small groups, bucket fed (ie not suckling) 4.00 bc
Feed lots (high density groups within outside pen) 4.00 c
White veal in larger groups, with automatic feeding (ie not suckling) 5.00 ce
White veal in small groups, suckling 5.50 deg
Pink veal in small groups, bucket fed + (some) solid fods, not suckling 6.00 fg
Hutches outside with replacement dairy calves, bucket fed (not suckling) + solid foods, weaned at 2–3 months 6.00 gi
Small groups of replacement dairy calves, bucket fed (not suckling) + solid foods, weaned at 2–3 months 7.00 hik
Groups of dairy calves with an automatic feeding system (not suckling) + solid foods, weaned at 2–3 months 7.00 ik
Suckler beef calves in groups kept inside, led twice a day to the dam for suckling up to 6–9 months 7.00 jk
Suckler beef calves kept with cows in a herd at pasture 9.50 l
  1. For significance levels (Sig.), systems without a common letter differ significantly (P < 0.05).