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Table 5 Descriptions of hazards, their median scores and significance levels (Sig.) according to the final threshold model (see text).

From: Expert opinion as 'validation' of risk assessment applied to calf welfare

Description of hazards Median Sig.
Insufficient contact with humans 4.00 a
Separation from the dam 4.00 ac
Too rich diet (overfeeding) 5.00 ac
Lack of maternal care 5.00 ac
Insufficient light 6.00 bce
Mixing calves from different sources 6.00 deg
No access to natural or artificial teat 6.50 eg
Insufficient space for natural play (eg running and gamboling) 6.00 eg
No bedding 7.00 dg
Poor floor condition 7.00 fg
Castration/dehorning, no anaesthetics 6.00 fi
Inadequate/inappropriate ventilation 7.00 fi
Iron deficiency 7.00 fi
Insufficient/inadequate roughage 7.00 gik
Insufficient floor space allowance 7.50 gik
Poorly educated stockperson 7.50 gik
Inadequate colostrum intake 8.25 hik
Underfeeding 9.00 jk
  1. For significance levels, systems without a common letter differ significantly (P < 0.05).