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Table 4 List of miscellaneous diagnoses in 173 necropsied laying hens, not included in main diagnostic categories and the statistical analysis.

From: Causes of mortality in laying hens in different housing systems in 2001 to 2004

   Housing of the birds (no. of flocks)
Diagnosis No. of hens Cages 1 Litter-based systems 2 Free range 3
Visceral gout 29 1 10 1
Unknown cause of death 23 6 17 0
Dehydration and cachexia 17 0 6 0
Trauma 16 2 12 2
Hepatic lipidosis and liver rupture 11 3 2 0
Circulatory disturbances4 16 0 3 0
Anaemia and haemorrhages, suspected intoxication 11 0 0 1
Osteoporosis 10 4 0 0
Egg bound 7 3 4 0
Hepatitis 5 0 4 1
Obstipation (straw) 5 0 1 2
Miscellaneous neoplasms5 4 1 3 0
Other causes of death6 19 2 17 0
  1. 1Includes conventional battery cages and enriched cages.
  2. 2Includes single-tiered floor systems and multi-tiered aviary systems.
  3. 3Flocks housed in litter-based systems indoors, with access to outdoor pens and pasture, including organic flocks.
  4. 4Botulism was later diagnosed from hens in the same flocks.
  5. 5Neoplasms other than lymphoid leukosis.
  6. 6Including egg yolk peritonitis (n = 4), gastritis (n = 2), ovarian cyst (n = 2), air sacculitis (n = 2), enteritis (n = 2), chronic salpingitis (n = 1), endocarditis (n = 1), intestinal volvulus (n = 1), myositis (n = 1) ruptured ovary and abdominal hemorrhage (n = 2). hepatitis (n = 1).