Skip to main content

Table 1 Obtained values (mean and standard deviation (SD)) and the corresponding determined reference values (mean ± 2 × SD) for electrocardiographic parameters in European brown hares (N = 30) anesthetized with xylazine and ketamine in the parasternal projection in short axis.

From: Preliminary reference values for electrocardiography, echocardiography and myocardial morphometry in the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus)

Parameter Reference value Mean and SD
Heart rate (beats/min) 100–178 140 ± 37.5
P wave time (ms) 16–36 26 ± 5
P-wave amplitude (mV) 0.14–0.42 0.275 ± 0.07
PQ interval time (ms) 80 80
QRS complex time (ms) 22–36 29 ± 3.5
Q-wave amplitude (mV) Up to (-)3.2 (-)2.4 ± 0.4
R-wave amplitude (mV) Up to 5 1.925 ± 1.55
S-wave amplitude (mV) Up to (-)0.2 0.1 ± 0.05
QT interval time (ms) 100–160 126 ± 10.5
ST interval time (ms) 80–120 97.5 ± 7
T-wave amplitude (mV) Up to (-) 1.4 (-) 0.6 ± 0.4
Mean electrical axis (0) 15–210 97.5 ± 113