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Table 2 Obtained values (mean and standard deviation (SD)) and the corresponding determined reference values (mean ± 2 × SD) for echocardiographic parameters in European brown hares (N = 30) anesthetized with xylazine and ketamine in the parasternal projection in short axis.

From: Preliminary reference values for electrocardiography, echocardiography and myocardial morphometry in the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus)

Parameter (mm) Reference value Mean value and SD
Left ventricular end-systolic diameter 6–20 13.6 ± 3.7
Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter 3.8 – 13.8 8.8 ± 2.5
Left ventricular wall end-systolic diameter 5.9–13.9 9.9 ± 2.0
Left ventricular wall end-diastolic diameter 6.6–10.6 8.6 ± 2.0
Intraventricular septum end-systolic diameter 2.4–12.4 7.4 ± 2.5
Intraventricular septum end-diastolic diameter 5.55–5.95 5.75 ± 1.0
Left ventricular ejection fraction 46.25–86.25 66.27 ± 9.9
Shortening fraction 18.95–48.75 18.95–48.75
Aorta 4.35 – 11.15 7.75 ± 1.7
Left atrium 11.5 – 18.7 15.12 ± 1.8