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Table 1 Ethogram of dairy cow behavior recorded during the tests of nociceptive responses

From: Changes in thermal nociceptive responses in dairy cows following experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis

Behavioral variable Definition
During laser stimulation  
Tail flick The tail is flicked at least 5 cm to either side. A new event is recorded after a complete cycle of tail movement [12].
Tail pressing The cow is pressing the central part of the tail against the base of the udder [13].
Muscle twitch Contraction of single muscle group. A new event is recorded after a pause of at least 5 seconds.
Type of initial response toward stimulation  
Kicking The hoof is thrusted against the floor or withdrawn at high speed [12].
Lifting leg The hoof is lifted from the floor in a calm manner [12].
Stepping The leg is moved, but the hoof is not lifted from the floor.
No response The leg is not moved within the temporal limits of the test [12].
Behavior during 30 s after exposure  
Moving hind leg At least one hind leg is moved. The hoof does not have to be lifted from the floor.
Licking leg The cow licks the exposed hind leg or attempts to do so by turning the head against the hind leg.
Licking body The cow licks other body parts than the hind legs.
Lying down The cow changes posture from standing to lying.