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Table 1 Description and mean frequencies of the courtship behaviors (mean ± SEM) displayed by 5 pampas deer males (total = 928 records)

From: Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) courtship and mating behavior

Behaviors Description Recordings
Chase The male chased the female by trotting behind her while the female ran, vocalizing several times in high tone. 24.3 ± 1.3
Ostentation The male remained standing immobile in front of the female, sometimes walking a few steps toward her, with his head and neck outstretched. The chin was held up high, look fixed, stamping alternating his forelegs on the ground firmly, and simultaneously making snort like noises. 15.6 ± 3.4
Guard The male lay down near the female (1 to 2 m), and may stayed there for several hours 12.8 ± 2.0
Low stretch The male walked toward the female with his head and neck stretched, the head held in a low position, a few centimeters above the ground, maintaining a distance of less than 2 m (Figure1), accompanied by frequent vocalizations. At the same time it could perform tongue movements. 12.1 ± 1.7
Flehmen The male raised its head, the external nares were drew back and with the mouth opened upper lip was curled back. 10.1 ± 1.6
Chivying The female was more than 5 m far from the male, and the male marched toward the female, with the neck in a normal position. Occasionally the male vocalized. 9.7 ± 1.5
Follow sniffing The male lowered and extended his head and neck following the female, both walking or chasing, sniffing the ground, with the ears up, maintaining a distance of less than 2 m. The movements were accompanied by acute vocalizations. 8.6 ± 1.7
Anogenital sniffing and licking The male pushed its face into the female's anogenital region and sniffed and/or licked it. 8.2 ± 1.9