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Table 4 Univariable analysis for clinical variables from 822 horses on the primary presentation to veterinary practitioners for clinical signs of colic, categorised as critical or non-critical on the basis of case outcome

From: Prospective study of the primary evaluation of 1016 horses with clinical signs of abdominal pain by veterinary practitioners, and the differentiation of critical and non-critical cases

Variable Coefficient Odds ratio 95 % CI P value
Continuous
 Age (years) 0.06 1.06 1.04–1.08 <0.001
 Estimated weight (kg) −0.00 1.0 1.00–1.00 0.247
 Combined pain score (max. 17) 0.30 1.35 1.28–1.43 <0.001
 Heart rate (beats per minute) 0.08 1.08 1.07–1.10 <0.001
 Respiratory rate (breaths per minute) 0.06 1.06 1.05–1.08 <0.001
 Rectal temperature −0.20 0.82 0.64–1.05 0.114
 Total gut sounds −0.38 0.68 0.64–0.73 <0.001
Categorical
 Breed
  Pony Ref.    
  Arab/Arab × 0.41 1.51 0.97–2.38 0.072
  Cob 0.87 2.38 0.90–6.31 0.081
  Cross breed 0.81 2.24 1.36–3.69 0.002
  Warm blood/sports horse −0.07 0.93 0.30–2.87 0.901
  Heavy type 0.23 1.25 0.77–2.05 0.368
  Thoroughbred (TB)/TB × −0.71 0.49 0.11–2.19 0.352
 Sex
  Mare Ref.    
  Gelding −0.09 0.91 0.66–1.27 0.588
  Stallion −1.01 0.37 0.11–1.23 0.105
 Body condition score
  Thin Ref.    
  Moderate 0.41 1.51 0.85–2.66 0.158
  Overweight −0.12 0.89 0.56–1.41 0.604
 Kicking
  None Ref.    
  Slight/occasional 0.11 1.11 0.76–1.63 0.583
  Moderate/frequent 0.98 2.65 1.65–4.27 <0.001
  Severe/continuous 2.39 10.89 2.83–41.91 0.001
 Pawing
  None Ref.    
  Slight/occasional −0.39 0.68 .045–1.02 0.064
  Moderate/frequent 0.82 2.27 1.49–3.47 <0.001
  Severe/continuous 1.29 3.65 1.32–10.10 0.013
 Sweating
  None Ref.    
  Slight/occasional 0.59 1.80 1.14–2.83 0.011
  Moderate/frequent 1.98 7.28 4.59–11.52 <0.001
  Severe/continuous 3.03 20.70 10.32–41.5 <0.001
 Flank watching
  None Ref.    
  Slight/occasional −0.28 0.76 0.50–1.15 0.194
  Moderate/frequent 0.82 2.26 1.45–3.53 <0.001
  Severe/continuous 2.13 8.44 2.49–28.58 0.001
 Attempts to lie down
  None Ref.    
  Slight/occasional 0.10 1.10 0.58–2.09 0.773
  Moderate/frequent 1.05 2.85 1.61–5.05 <0.001
  Severe/continuous 2.49 12.02 6.53–22.13 <0.001
 Demeanour
  Standing normally, BAR Ref.    
  Lowered head 1.75 5.73 3.48–9.43 <0.001
  Twitching/agitated 1.99 7.32 4.70–11.40 <0.001
 Absence of gut sounds
  No Ref.    
  Yes 2.12 8.33 5.77–12.03 <0.001
 Capillary refill time
  <2.5 s Ref.    
  >2.5 s 2.78 16.14 8.97–29.04 <0.001
 Mucous membrane colour
  Pink Ref.    
  Red 2.06 7.86 4.13–14.93 <0.001
  Cyanotic 4.87 130.1 17.6–964.1 <0.001
 Pulse character
  Strong Ref.    
  Weak 1.20 7.39 4.72–11.56 <0.001
 Recent management change
  None Ref.    
  Box rest −1.72 0.180 0.04–.077 0.020
  Increased stabling −0.26 0.77 0.34–1.76 0.538
  Decreased exercise −1.65 0.19 0.03–1.50 0.115
  Moved yards −0.25 0.78 0.37–1.66 0.522
  Field change/turnout −0.82 0.44 0.21–0.93 0.032
  Diet/bedding change −0.33 0.72 0.38–1.36 0.306
  Weather −0.76 0.47 0.13–1.65 0.238
  Other −0.18 0.84 0.32–2.17 0.711
 Recent faeces
  Faeces passed in past 6 h Ref.    
  No faeces within last 6 h 1.04 2.82 1.90–4.19 <0.001