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Table 1 Key clinical observations, culturing results, topical and systemic treatments in four cases of equine keratitis

From: Listeria monocytogenes associated kerato-conjunctivitis in four horses in Norway

Case No Day after initial examination Clinical diagnoses Bacterial growth after culturinga Topical medication (frequency)b Systemic medication (days)
1 1 Conjunctivitis, moderate central superficial keratitis1 Micrococcus spp.—moderate
L. monocytogenes—sparse
Chloramphenicol (TID QID)
15 Unchanged1 L. monocytogenes—sparse Ampicillin, Gentamicin (QID) Diclofenac (QID) Procaine penicillin, Gentamicin (5 days)
55 No symptoms2  
69 Conjunctivitis, moderate central superficial keratitis1 Normal flora dominated by Micrococcus spp. and L. monocytogenes Ciprofloxacin (QID) Diclofenac (QID)
114 Unchanged1 L. monocytogenes abundant before scraping/very sparse after Penicillin-Na, Gentamicin (CF) Procaine penicillin (10 days)
Vedaprofen (X days)
128 Central superficial keratitis improved1 No listerial growth (selective enrichment) Gentamicin (CF)
140 Conjunctivitis, moderate central superficial keratitis1   Penicillin-Na, Gentamicin (CF)
150 (released against medical advice) central superficial keratitis improved1   Oxytetracyclin - PolymyxinB (TID)
178 (euthanized—unrelated reason) Unchanged2    
2 1 Conjunctivitis, mild–moderate central superficial keratitis1 L. monocytogenes—sparse Oxytetracyclin - PolymyxinB (QID ), Idoxuridine (QID), Diclofenac (TID)
12 Mild keratitis1   Oxytetracyclin - PolymyxinB (QID 7 days), Idoxuridine (QID–7 days)
29 Conjunctivitis, mild–moderate central superficial keratitis, mild anterior uveitis1 L. monocytogenes—moderate (pure culture) Oxytetracyclin - PolymyxinB (QID), Atropin (1 single drop), Idoxuridine QID, Diclofenac TID
45 No symptoms2  
76 Conjunctivitis, mild–moderate central superficial keratitis1   Ciprofloxacin (QID 28 days )
2200 No further symptoms2   
3 1 Conjunctivitis, mild central superficial keratitis1 L. monocytogenes—moderate (pure culture) Ciprofloxacin (QID) Diclofenac (BID-TID) –  
30 Conjunctivitis2   Ciprofloxacin (QID)
44 None2  
48 Conjunctivitis, mild central superficial keratitis1 L. monocytogenes—sparse (pure culture) Chloramphenicol (Eyedrops 5x/day
Ointment at night 42 days)
90 None2    
104 Conjunctivitis, mild–moderate central superficial keratitis1 L. monocytogenes—very sparse (pure culture) Chloramphenicol (CF) Procaine penicillin (10 days)
118 Mild keratitis1   Chloramphenicol (QID ointment 14 days)
162 No symptoms2    
4 1 Mild central superficial keratitis1   Neomycin - Polymyxin B-Dexamethasone (TID 14 days)
16 Conjunctivitis2   Dexamethasone (TID)
28 Conjunctivitis, mild–moderate central superficial keratitis (ulcerative), mild anterior uveitis1 Sparse, mixed bacterial growth dominated by L. monocytogenes Oxytetracyclin-PolymyxinB (TID 5 days) Atropin (1 single drop)
Oxytetracyclin - PolymyxinB (TID 7 days)
Flunixin (5 days)
45 None1 No bacterial growth   
160 No symptoms2    
  1. Treatment prior to referral and short term medications awaiting culture results not included in the table. 1 Veterinary diagnoses, 2 Owner observation
  2. italic treatment outside clinic, BID treatment twice daily, TID treatment 3 times daily, QID treatment 4 times daily, CF continuous flow via subpalpebral lavage system, underlined: antibiotic treatments
  3. aTypically 3–5 days after sampling
  4. bTopical antibiotics initiated after received culture report