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Table 2 Risk factors associated with overweight horses

From: Prevalence and risk factors for overweight horses at premises in Sweden assessed using official animal welfare control data

Variable Overweight or obese
  Compliant Non-compliant OR (95 % CI) P value
Care of sick animals (CP-12)
 Compliant 6646 19 Ref  
 Non-compliant 711 23 3.52 (1.51–8.22) 0.004
 Not applicable/not inspected 3932 32 1.63 (0.84–3.19) 0.149
Quality feed (CP-29)
 Compliant 8485 29 Ref  
 Non-compliant 631 23 5.15 (2.49–10.67) <0.001
 Not applicable/not inspected 2173 22 1.77 (0.93–3.37) 0.079
Season
 Winter 2887 11 Ref  
 Spring 3144 21 1.51 (0.69–3.31) 0.301
 Summer 2262 23 2.18 (1.02–4.70) 0.045
 Autumn 2996 19 1.68 (0.79–3.57) 0.180
Horses per human popn (/1000)a 0.97 (0.95–1.00) 0.030
Professional establishmentb
 No 8558 73 Ref  
 Yes 2731 1 0.09 (0.01–0.64) 0.016
Meat production
 No 9074 52 Ref  
 Yes 2215 22 2.12 (1.18–3.81) 0.012
  1. Multivariable analysis of associations between risk factors and non-compliance with checkpoint 8 (body condition) where the inspector reported at least one horse as overweight, adjusted for clustering on premises (n = 10,796). Raw data for frequencies of compliant and non-compliant inspections are presented
  2. aNumber of compliant and non-compliant inspections are not reported for continuous variables
  3. bHolds a permit under 16 § of the Swedish Animal Welfare Act, for “an operating permit required by any person who, on a professional basis or on a substantial scale: 1. keeps, breeds, supplies or sells pet animals or receives pet animals for boarding or feeding; 2. keeps, breeds, supplies or sells horses or receives horses for boarding or feeding or uses horses in a riding school business; or 3. breeds fur animals.”