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Table 2 Results of univariable analyses (categorical variables), tested for associations with type of herd: high mortality (HM) or low mortality (LM)

From: α-Tocopherol and β-carotene concentrations in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum in Swedish dairy herds with high or low calf mortality

Model/variable Class HM LM P valuea
Model feedb (n = 57)
 Feeding TMR Yes 18 21  
No 9 9 0.88
 First harvest grass in feed samplec Yes 12 15  
No 15 12 0.64
 Percentage maize silage of total diet (%) < 20 18 24  
≥ 20 9 6 0.26
 Third harvest grass in feed sampled Yes 18 16  
No 9 11 0.74
 Type of herd (HM/LM)   27 30  
Model colostrumb (n = 162)
 Breed SR 15 46  
SH/MB 65 41 0.063
 Hours post-partum sample was collected < 1 19 28  
> 1 ≤ 3 37 30  
> 3–6 24 29 0.15
 Milk leakage occurred pre-partum Yes 6 13  
No 64 74 0.25
Missing 10 0  
 Parity 1 20 22  
2 24 34  
3 16 13  
4–8 20 18 0.68
 Type of herd (HM/LM)   80 87  
Model cow (n = 189)
 Breed SR 14 54  
SH 67 39  
MB 9 6 0.12
 Day post partum cow was sampled 2–3 33 40  
4–5 31 36  
6–7 26 23 0.80
 Feeding TMR Yes 18 21  
No 9 9 0.88
 Parity 1 37 39  
2 21 31  
3–8 32 29 0.55
 Percentage maize silage of total diet (DM) Tested in model feed, see above
 Type of herd (HM/LM)   90 99  
Model calfb (n = 187)
 Age of calf when sampled (days) 2–3 30 42  
4–5 30 33  
6–7 29 23 0.53
 Breed SR 15 52  
SH/MB 74 46 0.052
 Total protein (g/L) ≥ 55 59 58  
< 55 30 40 0.52
 Transition milk is given (days) ≥ 3 59 88  
< 3 20 10 0.42
 Type of herd (HM/LM)   89 98  
  1. SR Swedish Red, SH Swedish Holstein, MB mixed breed
  2. aTested with univariable logistic regression, with cluster on herd, of its association with type of herd (HM: high mortality; LM: low mortality)
  3. bOutcome transformed with a natural logarithm (ln) to approximate normal distribution
  4. cVariable used only for the model “β-carotene concentration in feed”
  5. dVariable used only for the model “α-tocopherol concentration in feed”