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Table 6 Results from multivariable linear regression models of the associations between predictors and concentration of β-carotene

From: α-Tocopherol and β-carotene concentrations in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum in Swedish dairy herds with high or low calf mortality

Model/variable Class β-Carotene concentration
Estimate Robust std. err. P value 95% CI
Model feed β-carotene (mg/kg DM)a (n = 57)
 Constant   3.50 0.10 < 0.001 3.28–3.72
 First harvest in feed sample No Baseline
Yes 0.64 0.17 0.001 0.29–1.00
 Region Halland/Skåne Baseline
Skaraborg 0.38 0.17 0.034 0.032–0.73
 TMRb No Baseline
Yes − 0.99 0.14 < 0.001 − 1.28 to − 0.70
 Type of herdb LM Baseline
HM − 0.15 0.17 0.38 − 0.51 to 0.20
Model colostrum β-carotene (µg/mL)a (n = 162)
 Constant   − 2.81 0.38 < 0.001 − 3.6 to − 2.02
 Breed SR Baseline
SH/MB 0.69 0.25 0.013 0.16 to 1.21
 Fatc (%)   0.26 0.27 < 0.001 0.20 to 0.32
 Interaction: fat (%) × breed Fatc (%) × breed SR Baseline
Fatc (%) × breed SH/MB − 0.11 0.036 0.005 − 0.19 to − 0.038
 Total solids (Brix%)   0.048 0.016 0.007 0.015 to 0.081
 Type of herdb LM Baseline
HM − 0. 62 0.16 0.69 − 0.39 to 0.26
Model cow serum β-carotene (µg/mL) (n = 189)
 Constant   4.28 0.21 < 0.001 3.85–4.71
 Breedb     0.0003  
SR Baseline
SH − 1.27 0.25 < 0.001 − 1.78 to − 0.75
MB − 0.55 0.32 0.10 − 1.23 to 0.12
 Percentage maize silage (DM) of total ration < 20% Baseline
≥ 20% − 1.08 0.27 0.001 − 1.66 to − 0.50
 Type of herdb LM Baseline
HM 0.16 0.27 0.56 − 0.41 to 0.73
Model calf serum β-carotenea (µg/mL; n = 187)      
 Constant   − 1.84 0.08 < 0.001 − 2.01 to − 1.67
 Breedb SR Baseline
SH/MB − 0.06 0.12 0.61 − 0.31 to 0.018
 Interaction: breed × total protein (g/L)    0.036   
SR × total protein ≥ 55 Baseline
SR × total protein < 55 − 0.21 0.11 0.078 − 0.44 to 0.026
SH/MB × total protein ≥ 55 − 0.062 0.12 0.61 − 0.31 to 0.18
SH/MB × total protein < 55 − 0.78 0.15 < 0.001 − 1.08 to − 0.047
 Total protein (g/L) ≥ 55 Baseline
< 55 − 0.21 0.11 0.078 − 0.44 to 0.026
 Type of herdb LM Baseline
HM − 0.18 0.15 0.23 − 0.49 to 0.12
  1. SR Swedish Red, SH Swedish Holstein, MB mixed breed
  2. aOutcome transformed with a natural logarithm (ln) to approximate normal distribution
  3. bForced into model
  4. cFive missing values