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Table 1 Median (range) values for symmetry parameters in 10 dogs with induced swinging limb disturbance (mimicking fore- and hind limb lameness) at a mean ± standard deviation trotting speed of 1.9 ± 0.1 m/s

From: Head and pelvic vertical displacement in dogs with induced swinging limb lameness: an experimental study

Parameter Sound Forelimb lameness Hind limb lameness
Left forelimb Right forelimb Left hind limb Right hind limb
HDmin (mm) 4.6 (− 5.6 to 11) − 3.2 (− 19.2 to 22.8) 2.6 (− 12.5 to 18.4) − 4.8 (− 10.8 to 6.3) 0.05 (− 10.1 to 19.8)
HDmax (mm) 1.3 (− 4.7 to 3.1) − 28.5 (− 61.2 to − 17.9)* 20.1 (− 4.4 to 47.5)* − 5.1 (− 11.9 to 6.9) 2.6 (− 1.6 to 21.0)
PDmin (mm) 1.0 (− 2.2 to 4.1) − 1.5 (− 12.6 to 10.6) 2.9 (− 0.7 to 13.5) 0.7 (− 8.0 to 12.0) 0.4 (− 8.5 to 11.4)
PDmax (mm) 2.7 (− 7.4 to 7.2) − 0.5 (− 11.1 to 10.5) 3.8 (− 16.9 to 17.8) − 10.9 (− 22.4 to 0.5)* 8.6 (− 3.0 to 30.0)*
Range up HD (mm) 4.4 (− 12.2 to 11.8) − 35.0 (− 65.0 to − 26.6)* 27.3 (− 4.0 to 56.2)* − 6.0 (− 22.3 to 9.4) 6.4 (− 9.1 to 37.0)
Range down HD (mm) − 2.9 (− 9.8 to 4.2) − 30.6 (1.2 to − 65.8) 16.8 (− 8.2 to 50.4) 1.0 (− 14.7 to 16.9) 4.3 (− 12.2 to 8.6)
Range up PD (mm) 4.4 (− 7.6 to 10) − 2.0 (− 17.2 to 16.8) 8.7 (− 17.0 to 25.9) − 9.8 (− 21.2 to 6.1)* 9.9 (− 8.5 to 27.9)*
Range down PD (mm) 1.9 (− 6.4 to 5.7) 5.3 (− 18.3 to 14.7) − 0.8 (− 16.6 to 18.5) − 8.6 (− 34.3 to 1.4)* 6.6 (− 2.9 to 44.5)*
SIup H 0.2 (− 0.5 to 0.4) − 0.8 (− 1.1 to − 0.6)* 0.6 (− 0.2 to 1.0)* − 0.3 (− 0.6 to 0.4) 0.3 (− 0.4 to 0.8)
SIdown H − 0.1 (− 0.3 to 0.2) − 0.7 (− 1.1 to 0.1)* 0.5 (− 0.4 to 1.0)* 0.0 (− 0.5 to 0.6) 0.1 (− 0.3 to 0.5)
SIup P 0.1 (− 0.2 to 0.4) 0.0 (− 0.5 to 0.4) 0.2 (− 0.4 to 0.7) − 0.2 (− 0.5 to 0.2)* 0.3 (− 0.2 to 0.6)*
SIdown P 0.1 (− 0.2 to 0.1) 0.1 (− 0.6 to 0.4) 0.0 (− 0.4 to 0.5) − 0.2 (− 0.6 to 0.0)* 0.2 (− 0.1 to 0.6)*
Hip movement asymmetry (mm) during swing phase 1.6 (− 8.6 to 19.9) − 4.3 (− 27.6 to 8.2) 4.9 (− 21.4 to 24.5) − 18.1 (− 36.7 to 5.4)* 15 (− 20.7 to 32.1)*
Stride duration (ms) 514 (426 to 568) 529 (477 to 586) 534 (446 to 565) 506 (434 to 562) 512 (446 to 551)
  1. Difference between the two highest displacements of the head (HDmax) and mid-pelvis (PDmax); difference between the two lowest displacements of the head (HDmin) and mid-pelvis (PDmin); differences between the two upward movements of the head and mid-pelvis (range up HD, range up PD); differences between the two downward movements of the head and mid-pelvis (range down HD, range down PD); a value of zero indicates perfect symmetry, whilst negative and positive values indicate a left or right limb lameness, respectively; symmetry indices of the head and mid-pelvis upwards movement (SI up H, SI up P) and downwards movements (SI down H, SI down P), with a value of zero indicating perfect symmetry; difference between the left and right hip vertical displacement (Hip asymmetry during swing phase), where negative and positive values indicate a left or right limb lameness, respectively. Data are expressed in mm unless specified otherwise. Significant differences (P < 0.05) compared with sound trials are written in italics and indicated with asterisks (*)