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Table 1 UWTM—underwater treadmill; TM—treadmill; ROM—range of motion; PL—pelvic limbs; TL—thoracic limbs; time*—time relative to 30 steps

From: Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Veterinary Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy; and the Summit of the American Association of Rehabilitation Veterinarians; and the American College of Veterinary Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation

Basic functional neurorehabilitation scale (BFNS) for dogs with thoracolumbar injury
Nociception evaluation Deep pain sensitivity absent in the digits, perineum and vulva 0
Deep pain sensitivity absent in the digits, and decreased in the perineum and vulva 1
Deep pain sensitivity absent/decreased in the digits, and present in the perineum and vulva. Superficial pain sensitivity decreased 2
Deep pain sensitivity absent/decreased in the digits, and present in the perineum and vulva. Superficial pain sensitivity present 3
Deep pain sensitivity present in the digits, perineum and vulva 4
Spinal reflexes evaluation Absence of spinal reflexes 0
Patellar reflex and cranial tibial reflex decreased, but withdrawal reflex absent 1
Patellar reflex, cranial tibial reflex and withdrawal reflex decreased 2
Patellar reflex and cranial tibial reflex normal/increased, but withdrawal reflex decreased and crossed extensor reflex present/absent 3
Normal spinal reflexes 4
Muscle tone evaluation Hypotonic extensors muscles and hypotonic flexors muscles without active assisted postural standing 0
Hypertonic extensors muscles and hypotonic flexors muscles, with active assisted postural standing but without active postural standing 1
Spasticity of the extensors muscles and hypotonic flexors muscles, with active postural standing but passive range of motion difficult or absent ROM 2
Hypertonic extensors muscles and hypotonic flexors muscles, with active postural standing but range of motion decreased in about 50% 3
Normal muscle tone or slightly hypotonic flexors muscles, with active postural standing 4
Gait evaluation Voluntary and involuntary movement absent of PL on the UWTM, TM and walking 0
Voluntary movement absent of PL on the UWTM, TM and walking, and involuntary movement present of PL on the UWTM, TM but absent during walking 1
Voluntary movement absent of PL on the TM and walking, but present on the UWTM, and involuntary movement present of PL on the UWTM, TM and walking, but without active postural standing and inability to stand up 2
Voluntary movement present of PL on the UWTM and TM, but absent during walking, and involuntary movement present of PL on the UWTM, TM and walking, with active postural standing but inability to stand up 3
Voluntary and involuntary movement present of PL on the UWTM, TM and walking, with active postural standing and ability to stand up 4
Proprioception and locomotor coordination evaluation Coordination between PL and TL < 10% of the time*; ± knuckling 0
Coordination between PL and TL between 10 and 25% of the time*; ± knuckling 1
Coordination between PL and TL between 25 and 50% of the time*; without knuckling 2
Coordination between PL and TL between 50 and 75% of the time*; without knuckling 3
Coordination between PL and TL > 75% of the time*; without knuckling 4
Poor prognosis (0–9) Fair prognosis (10–14) Good prognosis (15–20)
Subclass for patients with good prognosis
Gait defects evaluation Wide base walking, crossing and dragging of the PL > 75% of the time* 0
Wide base walking, crossing and dragging of the PL between 50 and 75% of the time* 1
Wide base walking, crossing and dragging of the PL between 25 and 50% of the time* 2
Wide base walking, crossing and dragging of the PL between 5 and 25% of the time* 3
Wide base walking, crossing and dragging of the PL < 5% of the time* 4