Skip to main content

Table 1 Resistance of Escherichia coli isolates originating from faecal samples of healthy cattle and swine and clinical submissions collected from 2010 to 2015 in Estonia

From: Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolated from Estonian cattle and swine from 2010 to 2015

Antimicrobial Cut-off values for resistance (mg/L)* Healthy animals Diagnostic submissions
Dairy cattle (n = 171) Swine (n = 120) Dairy cattle (n = 63) Swine (n = 143)
% (95% CI) % (95% CI) % 95% CI % 95%
Ampicillin*H > 8 3.5 (0.8 to 6.3) 21.5 (14.3 to 29.1) 58.7 (46.5 to 70.9) 53.9 (45.7 to 62.1)
Cephotaxime > 0.5 1.2 (− 0.4 to 2.8) 2.5 (− 0.3 to 5.3) 7.9 (1.2 to 14.6) 4.2 (0.9 to 7.5)
Cephazidime > 0.5 2.9 (0.4 to 5.4) 3.3 (0.1 to 6.5) 7.9 (1.2 to 14.6) 7.7 (3.3 to 12.1)
Streptomycin*H > 16 7.0 (3.2 to 10.8) 39.2 (30.5 to 40.8) 63.5 (51.6 to 6.4) 54.6 (46.4 to 62.8)
Gentamycin*D > 4 7.0 (3.2 to 10.8) 12.5 (6.6 to 18.4) 20.6 (10.6 to 30.6) 5.6 (1.8 to 9.4)
Kanamycin > 16 8.8 (4.6 to 13.1) 10.0 (4.6 to 15.4) 0.0 NA 0.0 NA
Ciprofloxacin*H > 0.06 0.6 (− 0.6 to 1.8) 5.8 (1.6 to 10.0) 38.1 (26.1 to 50.1) 32.2 (24.5 to 39.9)
Nalidixic acid*D > 16 0.6 (− 0.6 to 1.8) 3.3 (0.1 to 6.5) 17.5 (8.1 to 26.9) 32.2 (24.5 to 39.9)
Tetracycline*H > 8 7.0 (3.2 to 10.8) 32.5 (24.1 to 40.9) 58.5 (46.3 to 70.7) 60.2 (52.2 to 68.3)
Colistin*H > 2 2.4 (0.1 to 4.7) 11.6 (5.9 to 17.3) 3.2 (− 1.6 to 7.6) 5.6 (1.8 to 9.4)
Chloramphenicol > 16 2.4 (0.1 to 4.7) 5.8 (1.6 to 10.0) 9.5 (2.3 to 16.7) 18.2 (11.9 to 24.5)
Florfenicol > 16 0.0 NA 0.8 (− 0.8 to 2.4) 0.0 NA 0.7 (− 0.7 to 2.1)
Trimethoprim*H > 2 3.5 (0.8 to 6.3) 22.4 (14.9 to 29.9) 55.6 (43.3 to 67.9) 53.9 (45.7 to 62.1)
Sulfamethoxazole*H > 64 4.7 (1.5 to 7.9) 30.0 (21.8 to 38.2) 60.3 (48.2 to 70.4) 68.5 (60.1 to 76.1)
  1. * Swedres-Svarm 2015. Consumption of antibiotics and occurrence of antibiotic resistance in Sweden. Solna/Uppsala ISSN 1650-6332, 117, Table 2.17
  2. *H and *D Statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between healthy dairy cattle and swine, and between dairy cattle’s and swine’s clinical submissions. Corresponding percentages are also presented in italic face