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Table 1 Incidence of congenital deformity of cervical spine in apparently normal, dead in the shell, full term chick embryos observed in commercial hatcheries

From: Cervical scoliosis and torticollis: a novel skeletal anomaly in broiler chickens

Item Unhatched eggs examined Dead in shell embryos showing signs of cervical scoliosis and torticollis
North American studya 2730 132 (4.8)
European studyb 2360 93 (4.0)
  1. Numbers in parentheses indicate % examined
  2. aStudy conducted in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada
  3. bStudy conducted around Siedlce district, Eastern Poland