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Table 1 Radiological evaluation of elbow, hip and stifle joints in 28 English bulldogs

From: Radiographic findings have an association with weight bearing and locomotion in English bulldogs

Elbow dysplasia
Grade0123
 29 (51.8%)9 (16.1%)15 (26.8%)3 (5.4%)
Hip dysplasia
GradeABCDE
 2 (3.6%)12 (21.4%)11 (19.6%)31 (55.4%)
Hip osteoarthritis
Grade0123
 29 (51.8%)6 (10.7%)21 (37.5%)
Stifle osteoarthritis
Grade0123
 37 (66.1%)14 (25.0%)5 (8.9%)
  1. Number of joints (percentage of total number) in each grade class is reported. The grade of elbow dysplasia is reported on a scale from 0 to 3 (no, mild, moderate, severe) (FKC protocol based on International Elbow Working Group protocol), hip dysplasia on a scale from A to E (grades A and B nondysplastic and C, D and E dysplastic with increasing severity) (Fédération Cynologique Internationale screening protocol), and hip and stifle osteoarthritis on a scale from 0 to 3 (no, mild, moderate, severe)