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Table 1 Concentrations of electrolytes and urea (mM) in human stimulated saliva (n = 12) and in horse saliva (n = 4; mean of individual means of 4 samples/horse) at baseline (0 min) and after 50 min of forage chewing (mean ± SD and range)

From: Equine saliva components during mastication, and in vivo pH changes in the oral biofilm of sound and carious tooth surfaces after sucrose exposure

Electrolytesand ureaSaliva
HumanHorse
0 min
Horse
50 min
Naa17.3 ± 13.0
(5–51.0)
5.75 ± 0.87
(5.0–6.5)
10.6 ± 4.0
(5.0–13.8)
K23.5 ± 3.5
(17.8–28.6)
22.2 ± 2.72
(19.3–25.4)
34.4 ± 6.2
(25.7–40.2)
Ca0.83 ± 0.19
0.52–1.16
1.37 ± 0.22
(1.21–1.70)
2.71 ± 0.57
(1.92–3.14)
P5.00 ± 2.12
(2.8–9.8)
0.26 ± 0.05
(0.19–0.31)
0.37 ± 0.08
(0.30–0.46)
HCO321.1 ± 4.0
(17.0–30.0)
27.1 ± 2.39
(24.7–30.3)
27.5 ± 1.06
(26.5–29.0)
Urea4.66 ± 1.62
(2.3–7.2)
2.67 ± 0.78
(1.60–3.45)
3.17 ± 0.61
(2.48–3.95)
  1. aValues < detection limit (10 mM) were set to 5 (3 human samples; 14 out of 16 values at 0 min and 10 out of 16 at 50 min for horses)