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Table 1 Clinical features, neurolocalization, ancillary diagnostics and antiepileptic therapy in dogs with lissencephaly

From: Lissencephaly in Shih Tzu dogs

 Dog 1Dog 2Dog 3Dog 4
Age (months)8 m43 m18 m18 m
SexFemaleMaleMaleFemale
Onset of neurological signs6 m24 m12 m9 m
Neurological presentationTonic–clonic seizures and cluster seizuresTonic–clonic seizures and cluster seizures; difficulties in learning basic commands; behavioral alterations (changes in sleep cycle and aggressiveness) compulsive pacing; bilateral central blindness and bilateral ventromedial strabismusTonic–clonic seizures and cluster seizures; behavioral changes (abnormal vocalizations and aggressiveness) and central blindnessTonic–clonic seizures; cluster seizures, behavioral changes (abnormal vocalizations and aggressiveness during handling); compulsive pacing; bilateral central blindness and bilateral ventromedial strabismus
NeurolocalizationForebrain lesionForebrain lesionForebrain lesionForebrain lesion
Ancillary diagnosticsHematological and serum biochemistry profiles were normal. PCR for CDV in urine and IFAT for T. gondii and N. caninum in the serum were negativeHematological and serum biochemistry profiles were normal except for increased level of alkaline phosphatase (216, reference interval 20–156 U/L). PCR for CDV in urine and IFAT for T. gondii and N. caninum in the serum were negativeHematological and serum biochemistry profiles were normal. PCR for CDV in urine and IFAT for T. gondii and N. caninum in the serum were negativeHematological and serum biochemistry profiles were normal. PCR for CDV in urine and IFAT for T. gondii and N. caninum in the serum were negative
Antiepileptic therapyPhenobarbitala 2.5 mg/kg orally q12h prior to referral, increased to 3 mg/kg orally q12h after referral. Serum concentration was not tested due to good control of seizures
Levetiracetamb 20 mg/kg, orally q8h for 4 weeks as adjunct therapy for the control of isolate and cluster seizures
Phenobarbitala 2.5 mg/kg orally q12h prior to referral, increased to 4 mg/kg orally q12h after referral
KBr 30 mg/kg, orally q24h as adjunct to phenobarbital
Levetiracetamb 20 mg/kg, orally q8h for 4–6 weeks as adjunct therapy for the control of isolate and cluster seizures
Phenobarbitala 6 mg/kg orally q12h prior to referral, maintained after referral. Serum concentration was not tested due to financial constraints
KBr 40 mg/kg orally q24h prior to referral, reduced to 30 mg/kg after referral as adjunct to phenobarbital
Phenobarbitala 2 mg/kg orally q12h prior to referral, increased to 2.7 mg/kg orally q12h after referral. Serum concentration was not tested due to financial constraints
Levetiracetamb 20 mg/kg orally q8h for 4 weeks as adjunct to avoid cluster and isolated seizures on presentation
Follow-upAlive at 24 months of age
Nonprogressive neurological signs
Absence of cluster seizures
Persistence of isolate epileptic seizures
Alive at 36 months of age
Nonprogressive neurological signs
Absence of cluster seizures
Persistence of isolate epileptic seizures, behavioral changes, central blindness, and strabismus
Alive at 12 months of age
Nonprogressive neurological signs
Absence of cluster seizures
Persistence of isolate epileptic seizures, behavioral changes, and central blindness
Alive at 12 months of age
Nonprogressive neurological signs
Absence of cluster seizures
Persistence of behavioral changes, central blindness, and strabismus
  1. PCR polymerase chain reaction, CDV canine distemper virus, IFAT indirect immunofluorescence antibody test, KBr potassium bromide
  2. aGardenal®, Safoni, Brazil
  3. bKeppra®, UCB Biopharma, Brazil