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Table 2 Ethogram for play and non-nutritive sucking behaviour

From: The effect of age when group housed and other management factors on playing and non-nutritive sucking behaviour in dairy calves: a cross sectional observational study

Observed behaviour Description
Play
 Galloping/Running Calf runs in circles, back and forth and/or in multiple and changeable directions
 Bucking Calf lifts both hind legs from the ground, resulting in a kick where both hind legs are stretched backwards in the air
 Jumping and leap Calf lifts both forelegs from the ground, and the hind legs may also be lifted from the ground at the end of the sequence
 Turn Calf suddenly turns in another direction, usually in a jump or running sequence
 Head shake Calf shakes or rotates its head
 Frontal pushing or butting Calf pushes the frontal part of its head against another calf’s head
 Non-reproductive mounting Calf lifts both forelegs to jump upon another calf’s back, side or head
 Butting fixtures Calf puts the front of its head against an object in the pen such as the bars (usually performed in a standing position)
 Butting straw Calf kneels in the straw and pushes the front of its head against the straw
 Rubbing straw Calf kneels in the straw and rubs its head, throat or neck down into the straw
Sucking
 Sucking on other individuals Calf sucks on another calf’s ears, udder, foreskin, navel or other head- and body parts
 Sucking on objects Calf sucks on fixtures, including bars, buckets, teats, troughs and all other fixtures in the pen
 Licking objects Non-functional licking on fixtures, including bars, buckets, teats, troughs or any other fixture in the pen
  1. The ethogram for play behaviour [18] is divided into 10 subcategories and non-nutritive sucking behaviour [26] is divided into three subcategories. No distinction was made between subcategories when observing and recording play and non-nutritive sucking behaviour