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Table 1 Selected serum and urine parameters measured in healthy horses (non-AKI group), horses at risk of acute kidney injury (high-risk group; divided into horses with colic and horses treated with NSAIDs and gentamicin), and horses with clinically manifest acute kidney injury (AKI group)

From: Detecting acute kidney injury in horses by measuring the concentration of symmetric dimethylarginine in serum

Parameter Non-AKI group (n = 30) High-risk group (n = 30) AKI group (n = 11) n’
Colic (n = 10) n’ NSAIDs (n = 10) n’ Gentamicin (n = 10) n’ All n’
Me (Q1–Q3) Me (Q1–Q3)   Me (Q1–Q3)   Me (Q1–Q3)   Me (Q1–Q3)   Me (Q1–Q3)
Serum Urea (3.3–6.7 mmol/L) 5.7 (4.6–6.3) 5.9 (5.4–6.4) 0 5.4 (5.2–5.7) 0 6.2 (5.6–6.4) 0 5.7 (5.3–6.4) 0 12.3ac (10.6–23.9) 11
Creatinine (71–159 µmol/L) 120.0 (93.0–137.0) 125.1 (105.6–144.5) 1 133.5 (124.0–155.0) 1 124.9 (99.3–129.7) 0 129 (103.8–136.9) 2 305.0ac (228.0–440.2) 11
Urine pH (7.5–8.5) 8.0 (8.0–8.4) 7.75 (7.5–8.07) 2 8.5 (7.96–8.5) 2 8.0 (7.9–8.5) 0 8.0 (7.8–8.5) 4 6.0ac (5.45–7.95) 5
SG (1.02–1.04 g/L) 1.031 (1.021–1.042) 1.031 (1.021–1.039) 0 1.03 (1.019–1.034) 1 1.035 (1.031–1.036) 0 1.033 (1.02–1.036) 1 1.013 (1.011–1.022) 4
Protein (< 1 g/L) 0.07 (0.03–0.1) 0.3b (0.23–1.16) 3 0.21b (0.14–0.24) 1 0.14c (0.09–0.16) 0 0.21b (0.13–0.32) 4 0.69a (0.38–1.24) 5
UPCR (< 0.5) 0.023 (0.014–0.04) 0.11b (0.08–0.63) 2 0.08b (0.1–0.16) 0 0.084c (0.048–0.095) 0 0.1b (0.08–0.16) 2 0.65a (0.35–3.1) 5
GGT:Crea (< 5 IU/mmol) 1.07 (0.74–1.52) 1.9b (1.5–2.2) 0 1.35 (1.25–1.56) 0 1.31 (1.12–1.54) 0 1.44 (1.22–1.97) 0 4.55ac (1.62–7.19) 5
FENa (< 1%) 0.08 (0.06–0.12) 0.14 (0.13–0.15) 0 0.1c (0.06–0.16) 1 0.12c (0.05–0.23) 0 0.13 (0.07–0.17) 1 1.95ac (0.44–5.8) 6
  1. Q1, quartile 1; Me, median; Q3, quartile 3; S, serum; U, urine; Crea, creatinine; SG, specific gravity; UPCR, urine protein creatinine ratio; GGT, Gamma-glutamyltransferase; FENa, Fractional sodium excretion. n’, number of horses with value outside the laboratory reference value (parentheses in the first column) [4]. asignificant differences between non-AKI and AKI group; bsignificant differences between non-AKI and high-risk group; csignificant differences between AKI-risk and AKI group
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