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Table 2 Mean scores and standard deviations related to muscle, speed and water level

From: The impact of water depth and speed on muscle fiber activation of healthy dogs walking in a water treadmill

  Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 0enda
BF 30 m/min
 E 7.1 ± 2.0 7.1 ± 1.7 7.5 ± 1.8 6.4 ± 1.9 7.6 ± 1.6
 S 8.1 ± 0.8 7.9 ± 1.0 8.2 ± 0.8 7.9 ± 0.8 8.1 ± 0.7
 T 6.6 ± 2.2 7.4 ± 1.6 7.8 ± 1.5 6.5 ± 2.2 6.9 ± 2.3
BF 50 m/min
 E 5.4 ± 2.2 5.2 ± 2.1 5.1 ± 2.3 3.7 ± 2.5 5.5 ± 2.7
 S 7.5 ± 1.4 7.6 ± 1.2 7.4 ± 1.3 7.1 ± 1.2 7.6 ± 1.2
 T 6.1 ± 2.1 6.3 ± 2.1 6.9 ± 1.6 5.3 ± 2.3 6.5 ± 2.3
QVL 30 m/min
 E 7.3 ± 1.6 7.5 ± 1.9 7.7 ± 1.6 7.2 ± 1.9 7.8 ± 1.7
 S 7.9 ± 0.9 7.9 ± 0.8 7.8 ± 1.0 8.1 ± 0.9 8.0 ± 0.8
 T 7.2 ± 1.4 7.4 ± 1.3 7.9 ± 1.3 7.4 ± 1.4 7.4 ± 1.7
QVL 50 m/min
 E 5.8 ± 2.1 5.6 ± 2.0 5.5 ± 2.6 4.7 ± 2.6 6.2 ± 2.0
 S 7.5 ± 1.3 7.3 ± 1.2 7.4 ± 1.2 7.5 ± 1.2 7.6 ± 1.0
 T 6.9 ± 1.3 6.8 ± 2.0 7.1 ± 1.7 6.5 ± 2.0 7.3 ± 1.3
  1. Acoustic myography from right and left m. biceps femoris (BF) and vastus lateralis of m. quadriceps femoris (QVL) on 25 large-breed dogs walking in water at two velocities (30 and 50 m/min) and at the following water levels: Level 0, at the bottom of the pad; level 1, at the tibio-tarsal joint; level 2, at the tibial plateau; level 4, at the mid-femur. Data were collected for muscle fiber resting time/total time (E-score), spatial summation (S-score), temporal summation (T-score), and scored from 1 to 10, where high scores indicate least muscle fiber activation
  2. aMeasurements at level 0 were repeated at the end of the trial