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Table 1 Variables (mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM)) of the physiological parameters observed during the surgical procedure in the different groups

From: Antinociceptive and analgesic effect of continuous intravenous infusion of maropitant, lidocaine and ketamine alone or in combination in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy

Variables Groups Moments
M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7
HR (bpm) CG 150 ± 20 160 ± 23 202 ± 24 195 ± 23 183 ± 22 171 ± 24 169 ± 20
  MG 162 ± 22 155 ± 20 181 ± 20# 188 ± 12# 177 ± 19 172 ± 21 180 ± 17#
  LG 146 ± 23 157 ± 25 176 ± 28 178 ± 30 167 ± 25 165 ± 28 164 ± 27
  KG 161 ± 24 148 ± 17 173 ± 16 177 ± 16 171 ± 18 169 ± 20 165 ± 20
  LMG 136 ± 9 127 ± 7* 161 ± 17* 170 ± 20 158 ± 17 151 ± 13 133 ± 16*#
  KMG 139 ± 15 138 ± 21 159 ± 26*# 164 ± 18*# 156 ± 21* 149 ± 17 133 ± 13*
  LKMG 155 ± 23 153 ± 25 174 ± 16* 178 ± 18 174 ± 12 165 ± 17 154 ± 11
SBP (mmHg) CG 72.2 ± 14.7 93.8 ± 31.6 127.2 ± 47.5 133.5 ± 39.7 113.0 ± 32.1 107.1 ± 31.9 108.5 ± 17.8
  MG 81.5 ± 8.7 96.1 ± 36.7 114.6 ± 25.0 109 ± 19.1 97.1 ± 28.1 91.6 ± 14.9 94.1 ± 17.2
  LG 55.0 ± 11.9 71.2 ± 13.0 96.5 ± 32.7 92.5 ± 37.0 71.0 ± 19.4 81.75 ± 16.1 80.7 ± 16.2
  KG 71.7 ± 15.6 90.0 ± 32.2 110.7 ± 32.4 108.5 ± 33.4 96.2 ± 42.5 95.7 ± 25.6 104.2 ± 32.6
  LMG 67.0 ± 12.7 87.0 ± 27.5 113.7 ± 52.4 119.2 ± 54.1 101.2 ± 46.3 96.0 ± 41.5 87.5 ± 40.4
  KMG 66.8 ± 16.9 83.3 ± 34.9 109.1 ± 53.4 105.3 ± 43.0 94.8 ± 52.9 91.1 ± 47.4 96.0 ± 46.7
  LKMG 66.0 ± 7.0 85.0 ± 22.7 99.5 ± 19.9 101.0 ± 28.9 90.0 ± 26.4 93.2 ± 24.1 90.7 ± 20.2
RR (mpm) CG 25 ± 6 27 ± 10 29 ± 10 31 ± 10 29 ± 11 26 ± 10 25 ± 7
  MG 39 ± 10# 30 ± 9# 32 ± 11# 33 ± 10# 28 ± 12# 29 ± 11# 27 ± 13#
  LG 30 ± 4• 31 ± 5• 30 ± 5• 28 ± 8 26 ± 8 25 ± 8 27 ± 7
  KG 18 ± 9# 18 ± 7# 19 ± 8# 18 ± 8A 18 ± 9 17 ± 8 20 ± 10
  LMG 24 ± 8 16 ± 5 20 ± 7 18 ± 7A 18 ± 8 16 ± 7 16 ± 6
  KMG 23 ± 8# 20 ± 9• 19 ± 10*# 18 ± 7*# 15 ± 7*# 14 ± 9*# 12 ± 6*#
  LKMG 22 ± 10# 16 ± 8*# 20 ± 9# 19 ± 8*# 19 ± 12 18 ± 12 18 ± 9
SpO2 (%) CG 99.0 ± 1.6 99.1 ± 1.7 99.7 ± 0.4 99.2 ± 0.7 99.5 ± 0.5 99.6 ± 0.5 99.6 ± 0.5
  MG 96.7 ± 1.6 98.2 ± 1.8 98.6 ± 1.3 98.2 ± 1.2 98.2 ± 1.3 98.2 ± 2.0 98.5 ± 2.0
  LG 99 ± 1.3 99 ± 1.0 97.8 ± 2.2 97.5 ± 2.6 98.6 ± 1.1 98.6 ± 1.5 99 ± 0.7
  KG 99.5 ± 0.5 99.2 ± 1.1 99.2 ± 0.4 98.8 ± 0.9 99.3 ± 0.5 98.7 ± 1.0 99.1 ± 0.8
  LMG 99.3 ± 0.7 99.2 ± 1.1 98.7 ± 1.7 98.2 ± 2.1 98.7 ± 1.9 99.2 ± 0.7 99.3 ± 1.0
  KMG 99.2 ± 1.0 99.1 ± 0.8 98.3 ± 1.6 99.1 ± 0.8 98.7 ± 0.8 98.8 ± 0.9 99 ± 0.5
  LKMG 99.5 ± 0.5 99.6 ± 0.5 99.2 ± 0.8 99.5 ± 0.7 99.2 ± 0.8 99.6 ± 0.7 99.6 ± 0.7
Etiso (V%) CG 1.4 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.2
  MG 0.8 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.6 1.6 ± 0.2 1.7 ± 0.2 1.6 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.4
  LG 1.4 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.1 1.1 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.2
  KG 1.2 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 1.1 1.3 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.2
  LMG 1.4 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.07 1.4 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.08 1.3 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.1
  KMG 1.4 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 1.09 1.2 ± 0.1
  LKMG 1.4 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.2
ETCO2 CG 33.1 ± 8.6 34.6 ± 8.9 34.6 ± 6.6 35 ± 6.6 35.8 ± 6.8 35.3 ± 6.8 34.6 ± 7.1
  MG 33.9 ± 3.8 37.4 ± 5.7 38.4 ± 6.2 38.4 ± 5.6 38.5 ± 5.4 39.8 ± 5.8 40.3 ± 5.7
  LG 26 ± 7.7 28.8 ± 7.7 27.8 ± 8.7 26.9 ± 9.7 27.1 ± 10 29.5 ± 10.3 29.1 ± 11.7
  KG 34.5 ± 6.2 35.6 ± 8.6 33.6 ± 9.9 30.6 ± 9.7 31.8 ± 7.9 32.8 ± 7.9 31.3 ± 8.2
  LMG 27.5 ± 4.7 30.5 ± 8.8 31 ± 9.3 29.7 ± 8.9 30.5 ± 8.6 30.9 ± 9.1 30.6 ± 9.8
  KMG 27.7 ± 10.2 29.5 ± 8.3 32.8 ± 9.9 34.6 ± 11.6 34.1 ± 9.5 34.4 ± 9.2 34.2 ± 9.8
  LKMG 32.5 ± 9.3 34.2 ± 8.9 37 ± 10.1 37.8 ± 10.2 36.3 ± 9.3 36.4 ± 10.4 36.3 ± 8.8
T (°C) CG 37.6 ± 0.8 37.6 ± 0.5 36.9 ± 0.6 36.6 ± 0.8 36.5 ± 0.8 37.0 ± 0.6 37.0 ± 0.7
  MG 37.8 ± 0.9 38.0 ± 0.6 37.9 ± 0.5 37.8 ± 0.5 37.7 ± 0.5 37.7 ± 0.5 37.7 ± 0.6
  LG 37.3 ± 0.4 37.1 ± 0.4 36.9 ± 0.4 36.7 ± 0.4 36.4 ± 0.5 36.2 ± 0.4 36.7 ± 0.5
  KG 37.7 ± 0.4 37.4 ± 0.4 37.2 ± 0.4 36.8 ± 0.4 36.3 ± 0.6 36.3 ± 0.4 36.0 ± 0.3
  LMG 37.0 ± 0.8 36.8 ± 0.7 36.6 ± 0.7 36.4 ± 0.8 36.2 ± 0.8 36.1 ± 0.9 35.8 ± 0.9
  KMG 37.2 ± 0.5 37.0 ± 0.5 36.9 ± 0.6 36.5 ± 0.6 36.5 ± 0.6 36.4 ± 0.4 35.9 ± 0.4
  LKMG 37.7 ± 0.5 37.4 ± 0.4 37.2 ± 0.4 36.9 ± 0.4 36.6 ± 0.5 36.2 ± 0.4 35.8 ± 0.5
  1. CG control group; MG maropitant group; LG lidocaine group; LMG lidocaine and maropitant group; KG ketamine group; KMG ketamine and maropitant group; LKMG lidocaine, ketamine, and maropitant group. T esophageal temperature; RR respiratory rate; HR heart rate; SpO2 oxygen saturation; Etiso expired isoflurane concentration; EtCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide at the end of expiration; SBP systolic blood pressure
  2. *Significant difference relative to CG
  3. #Significant difference between MG and treatment groups
  4. •Significant difference between LG and treatment groups. bmp beats per minute; mpm, movement per minute. M1, preoperatively; M2, after incision of the linea alba; M3, after right pedicle clamping; M4, after left pedicle clamping; M5, after ligation of the uterus body; M6, suture of the abdominal muscles; and M7, at the end of the surgery