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The Use of Isophane Insulin for the Control of Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs

Anvendelse af isophaninsulin til behandling af diabetes mellitus hos hund.

Abstract

For this study 54 dogs with diabetes mellitus verified by anamnesis, clinical examinations and laboratory analyses were selected in 13 Danish and Swedish small animal clinics. After instruction the owners gave isophane insulin (“Insulin Protaphan Human”®) injections to the dogs morning and evening followed by a commercial or homemade meal rich in fibers. The veterinarians examined the treated dogs 5 times or more in the 90 day treatment period, preferably in the morning before injection and meal. In all 54 dogs the clinical symptoms disappeared a few days after isophane insulin injections, and 54% of the dogs were clinically healthy within 8 days. Within a month 96% of the dogs were normalized after therapy. Simultaneously the blood glucose levels were normalized in 64% of the dogs within 14 days and in further 21% within 30 days. The urine glucose levels were normalized in 64% of the dogs within 14 days and for further 19% within 30 days. At the end of the study 48 out of the 54 diabetic dogs were clinically healthy, alert and free from symptoms of diabetes. The average dose of isophane insulin was for greater dogs 0.44 units per kg bw twice a day, for small dogs 0.79. Six dogs had been destroyed in the trial period for various reasons. One owner had injection troubles. Another owner was hospitalized and had to get rid of the dog. One dog developed advanced breast cancer, 1 went fierce and 2 developed cataracts. Four dogs had by 1 or 2 occasions shown hypoglycemic symptoms, which quickly disappeared after appropriate adjustments of insulin dosing, feeding schedule and exercise programme. It can be concluded that isophane insulin is a highly suitable insulin preparation for a 2 injection per day treatment of diabetic dogs.

Sammendrag

I dette studie indgik fra 13 smådyrsklinikker i Danmark og Sverige 54 hunde med diabetes mellitus. Diagnosen var i det enkelte tilfælde sikret med en fyldig anamnese samt kliniske og laboratoriemæssige undersøgelser. Efter passende instruktion gav ejerne hundene injektioner af isophaninsulin morgen og aften, hvorefter hundene fodredes med et færdigfremstillet eller hjemmelavet fiberrigt foder. Klinikdyrlægerne undersøgte de behandlede hunde 5 gange eller mere i den efterfølgende 90-dages periode, fortrinsvis om morgenen inden injektion og foderindtagelse. Hos alle 54 hunde begyndte de kliniske symptomer at forsvinde efter få dages insulinbehandling, og 54% af hundene var klinisk normale efter 8 dage. Efter en måneds behandling var 96% af hundene normaliserede af behandlingen. Samtidig blev blodglukoseniveauerne normaliserede hos 64% af hundene inden for 14 dage og hos yderligere 21% inden for 1 måned. Uringlukoseværdierne blev normaliserede hos 64% af hundene inden for 14 dage og yderligere 19% inden for 1 måned.

Ved forsøgets afslutning var 48 af de oprindelige 54 diabetiske hunde fortsat i behandling og klinisk sunde og uden symptomer på diabetes mellitus. Den anvendte 2-gange-i-døgnet gennemsnitsdosis var for store hunde 0,44 enh. pr. kg, for små hunde 0,79. Seks hunde var blevet aflivet i forsøgsperioden af forskellige årsager. En ejer havde problemer med at give injektionerne. En anden ejer blev indlagt på hospital og kunne ikke få hunden passet. En hund udviklede en intraktabel mammacancer, en blev bidsk og to udviklede svær katarakt. Fire hunde havde 1 eller 2 gange vist symptomer på hypoglykæmi, som forsvandt hurtigt efter passende justeringer af insulindosis, fodermængde og motionsrytme.

Det kan konkluderes, at isophaninsulin er et velegnet præparat til diabetiske hunde i et 2-gange-i-døgnet behandlingsprogram.

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Correspondence to F. Hjort Lorenzen.

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Hjort Lorenzen, F. The Use of Isophane Insulin for the Control of Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs. Acta Vet Scand 33, 219–227 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03547312

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Keywords

  • canine diabetes mellitus
  • field trial
  • clinical efficacy and safety