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Equine Sarcoids. A Clinical and Epidemiological Study in Relation to Equine Leucocyte Antigens (ELA)

Abstract

Associations between clinical parameters of sarcoids and the equine leucocyte antigen system (ELA) were analysed for 120 Swedish horses. Median age of affected horses was 5.2 years, and the majority presented with solitary tumors between 2 and 5 cm in diameter and ventral abdomen was a predilection site. Clinical signs first appeared at a median age of 3.5 years, and sarcoids at different locations first appeared at different ages. Lesions at different sites differed in size, and multiple tumors, early onset, long duration, and older age all had an association with large size. Clinical manifestations of sarcoids and the association between certain ELA-specificities and early onset (A5) and increased recurrence rates after surgery (W13), in addition to increased prevalence (A3W13), strengthen further that some horses are inherently predisposed to sarcoid growth. Unassociated with any clinical parameters, one third of the untreated horses became free of sarcoids due to “spontaneous” regression, perhaps as a result of immune responses against the tumors. Seventy percent of the horses were treated (mostly by excision), and large size was the main parameter promoting treatment. Excision had no significant effect on possibly remaining sarcoids. Recurrence rate after first treatment was about 35%, with the majority of tumors recurring within 4 months. Early onset, long duration, large size, and localization to distal limbs all appeared to increase risk of recurrence. Early treatment, performed under general anesthesia in recumbency which permits wide excision and measures to avoid autoinoculation, significantly reduced recurrence rates.

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Acknowledgments

I want to thank Drs. Peter Perlmann, Marita Troye-Blomberg and Àke Larsson at the Department of Immunology, University of Stockholm, and Dr. Berit Funkquist at the Department of Medicine and Surgery, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden, for their help and fruitful cooperation.

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Broström, H. Equine Sarcoids. A Clinical and Epidemiological Study in Relation to Equine Leucocyte Antigens (ELA). Acta Vet Scand 36, 223–236 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03547691

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03547691

Keywords

  • AAT/PBVsystem
  • tumors