Skip to main content

Necrotizing Infectious Enteritis in Piglets, Caused by Clostridium Perfringens Type C

I. Biochemical and Toxigenic Properties of the Clostridium

Abstract

Twenty Danish and 3 foreign strains of the porcine subtype of Cl. perfringens type G have been studied with regard to biochemical activity and toxin formation.

The strains examined showed no deviation from the biochemical features characteristic of Gl. perfringens. Two of the strains showed delayed fermentation of saccharose, 1 of them also of salicin. Only 3 of the strains gave a positive nitrite reaction. The rest of the strains (20) presumably reduced nitrate to NH3 within 3 days.

All of the strains examined produced the major antigens α and β, none of them ε and ι. Of the minor antigens, θ and v were produced by all the strains, x by 2 of the foreign strains and 5 of the Danish strains. None of the strains gave reaction for the δ, λ and μ antigens.

Some of the Danish strains were hemolytic in the presence of α, δ, and θ antitoxins, others not, while a few varied. The foreign strains were non-αδθ hemolytic.

References

  • Batty, I.: Personal communication 1965.

  • Borthwick, G. R.: Observations on B. Welchii type D: its occurrence in normal animals and the variation in antigenic character of its toxin. Brit. J. exp. Path. 1937, 18, 475–481.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bosworth, T. J.: On a new type of toxin produced by Clostridium welchii. J. comp. Path. 1940, 53, 245–255.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brooks, M. E., M. Sterne & G. H. Warrack: A re-assessment of the criteria used for type differentiation of Clostridium perfringens. J. Path. Bact. 1957, 74, 185–195.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burnet, F. M.: The mucinase of Vibrio cholerae. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 1948, 26, 71–80.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dalling, T. & H. E. Ross: Clostridium welchii: Notes on the relationship between the types of cultures and the production of toxin. J. comp. Path. 1938, 51, 235–249.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Glenny, A. T., M. Barr, M. Llewellyn-Jones, T. Dalling & H. E. Ross: Multiple toxins produced by some organisms of the CI. welchii group. J. Path. Bact. 1933, 37, 53–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Høgh, P.: Enterotokssemi hos pattegrise forârsaget af Clostridium perfringens type C. — Preliminary Report. Nord. Vet.-Med. 1965, 17, 1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Niilo, L. & R. J. Avery: Bovine “Enterotoxemia”. I. Clostridium perfringens types isolated from animal sources in Alberta and Saskatchevan. Canad. vet. J. 1963, 4, 31–36.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Oakley, C. L.: Die Toxine des Bacillus enterotoxicus (B. welchii typ F). Zbl. Bakt., I. Abt. Orig. 1948-49, 153, 312–315.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oakley, C. L. & G. H. Warrack: The ACRA test as a means of estimating hyaluronidase, deoxyribonuclease and their antibodies. J. Path. Bact. 1951, 63, 45–55.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oakley, C. L. & G. H. Warrack: Routine typing of Clostridium welchii. J. Hyg. (Lond.) 1953, 51, 102–107.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prévôt, A. R.: Techniques pour le diagnostic des bactéries anaërobies. Edit, de la Tourelle, St. Mandé, 1960, pg. 23–24.

  • Reed, R. W.: Nitrate, nitrite and indole reactions of gas gangrene anaerobes. J. Bact. 1942, 44, 425–431.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skovgaard, N.: Om specifik tselling af clostridier i levnedsmidler. VIII. Nord. Vet.-möte, Helsingfors 1958, 766–772.

    Google Scholar 

  • Spray, R. S.: Semisolid media for cultivation and identification of the sporulating anaerobes. J. Bact. 1936, 32, 135–155.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sterne, Max & W. E. van Heyningen: The Clostridia. In, Bacterial and Mycotic Infections of Man. 3rd. Ed. Edit. René J. Dubos, London 1958, pg. 345.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, A. W.: Antigenic variation in a strain of Clostridium welchii type C (B. paludis). J. comp. Path. 1940, 53, 50–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilsdon, A. J.: Observations on the Classification of Bacillus Welchii. Univ. Camb. Inst. Anim. Path., 2. rep.direct., 1931, 53–85.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilsdon, A. J.: The Relationship of “Bacillus Ovitoxicus” (Bennetts) to the Clostridium Welchii Group. Univ. Camb. Inst. Anim. Path., 3. rep.direct., 1933, 46–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zeissler, J. & L. Eassfeld-Sternberg: Zur Bakteriologie der Enteritis necroticans. I. Ein neuer Bazillus im Darminhalt von Kranken mit Enteritis necroticans. Zbl. Bakt., I. Abt. Orig. 1948-49, 153, 304–312.

    Google Scholar 

  • ZoBell, C. E.: Factors influencing the reduction of nitrates and nitrites by bacteria in semisolid media. J. Bact. 1932, 24, 273–281.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Høgh, P. Necrotizing Infectious Enteritis in Piglets, Caused by Clostridium Perfringens Type C. Acta Vet Scand 8, 26–38 (1967). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03547849

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03547849