Energy Metabolism During Late Gestation and Lactation in Muciparous Sows in Relation to Backfat Thickness and the Interval from Weaning to First Oestrus
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica volume 34, pages 9–20 (1993)
Ten crossbred, fourth or fifth parity sows were divided into 2 groups - high (H) and low (L) - according to their backfat thickness 9 days before parturition. Body weight, backfat thickness and litter weight were recorded repeatedly during a 5 week lactation period. The length of the interval from weaning to first oestrus was also noted. All sows were fed a commercial diet (11.9 MJ/kg, 14.5% crude protein). During gestation, daily food intake was 2.2 kg/sow, while during lactation it was 3.0 kg/sow plus 0.4 kg/piglet.
Blood samples were drawn on day 9 before parturition and on days 2,7,14 and 21 of lactation. The samples were analysed to determine concentrations of glucose, urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglycerides, free fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. In both groups, concentrations of free fatty acids and urea nitrogen were low on day 9 before parturition while those of triglycerides were high, indicating anabolism regardless of backfat thickness.
During the first week of lactation, concentrations of free fatty acids increased in the H-group but not in the L-group, and concentrations of urea nitrogen were higher in the H-group. These differences, together with the greater loss of weight observed in the H-group, indicate that catabolism of maternal fat and protein depots was more pronounced in the Η-group than in the L-group during this time. On day 14 of lactation, both groups showed equally low concentrations of free fatty acids, decreasing creatinine concentrations and stable triglyceride and urea nitrogen concentrations. Furthermore, weight loss during the second and third weeks of lactation was low in both groups. These facts, taken together, indicate that the catabolic rate was decreasing in both groups during this period. No differences in return to oestrus interval were noted between the groups. The present study indicates that under a restricted feeding regime the catabolic rate during the first week of lactation is higher in sows with higher backfat thickness in late gestation.
As lactation progresses, a more balanced metabolism is achieved regardless of backfat thickness, which may tend to reduce differences in return to oestrous interval.
Algers B, Madej A, Rojanasthien S, Uvnäs-Moberg K: Quantitative relationship between suckling-induced teat stimulation and the release of prolactin, gastrin, somatostatin, insulin, glucagon and VIP in sows. In: Algers B. (Ph. D. Thesis): Vocal and tactile communication during suckling in pigs. Aspects on function and effects of continuous noise. Dept of Anim. Hyg., Swed. Univ. of Agrie. Sci., Report 25 1989.
Altszuler N, Hampshire J: Oxytocin fusion increases plasma insulin and glucagon levels and glucose production and uptake in the normal dog. Diabetes 1981, 30, 112–114.
Bengtsson G, Gentz J, Hakkarainen J, Hellström R, Persson B: Plasma levels of FFA, glycerol, beta-hydrox-ybutyrate and blood glucose during the postnatal development of the pig. J. Nutrition. 1969, 97, 311–315.
Bondar RJL, Mead D C: Evaluation of glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesente-roides in the hexokinase method for determining glucose in serum. Clin. Chem. 1974, 20, 586–590.
Bosu WTK, Edqvist L-E, Lindberg P, Martinsson K, Johansson EDB: The effect of various dosages of lynestrenol on plasma levels of oestrogen and progesterone during the menstrual cycle in rhesus monkey. Contraception. 1976, 13, 677–684.
Close WH, Noblet J, Heavens R P: Studies on the energy metabolism of pregnant sow. 2. The partition and utilization of metabolizable energy intake in pregnant and non-pregnant animals. Br. J. Nutr. 1985, 53, 267–279.
Custer EM, Myers JK, Proffenbarger PL, Schoen I: The storage stability of 3-hydroxybutyrate in serum and plasma and whole blood. Amer. J. clin. Path. 1983, 80, 375.
De Lange PGB, van Kempen G J M, Klaver J, Versiegen M WA: Effect of condition of sows on energy balances during 7 days before and 7 days after parturition. J. Anim. Sci. 1980, 50, 5, 886–891.
Duncombe WG: The colorimetric determination of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma. Clin Chim. Acta. 1964, 9, 122–125.
Eisenweiner HG: Kinetische Bestimmung des Harnstoffes mit dem LKB-system. J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 1976, 14, 261–264.
Eriksson M, Einarsson S, Kunavongkrit A, Uvnäs-Moberg K: Increase of insulin and decrease of glucagon levels in response to total and fractionated weaning in sows. Acta physiol. scand. 1987, 131, 387–390.
Fabiny DL, Ertinghausen G: Automated reaction rate method for determination of serum creatinine with the Centri Chem. Clin. Chem. 1971, 17, 696–700.
Flint DJ: Regulation of insulin receptors by prolactin in lactating rat mammary gland. J. Endocr. 1982, 93, 279–285.
Flint DJ, Clegg RA, Vernon RG: Prolactin and the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism during lactation in rats. J. Molec. Endocrinol. 1981, 22, 265–275.
Forsling ML, Taverne MAM, Pravizi F, Elsaesser F, Smidt D, Ellendorff F: Plasma oxytocin and steroid concentrations during late pregnancy, parturition and lactation in the miniature pig. J. Endocr. 1979, 52, 61–69.
Gentz J, Bengtsson G, Hakkarainen J, Hellström R, Persson B: Metabolic effects of starvation during neonatal period in the pig. Amer. J. Phys. 1970, 218, 662–668.
Hakkarainen J: Developmental changes of protein, RNA, DNA, lipids and glycogen in the liver, skeletal muscle and brain of the piglet. Ph. D. Thesis. Dept. of animal nutrition and management, Swed. Univ. of Agrie. Sci. Acta vet. scand. 1975. Suppl. 59.
Johnston LJ, Orr Jr DE, Tribble LF, Clark JR: Effect of lactation and rebreeding phase energy intake on primiparous and multiparous sow performance. J. Anim. Sci. 1986, 63, 804–814.
Kaneko J J: In: Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals. 1989. 4th Edt. Academic Press Inc.
Linzell JL, Mepham TB: Mammary metabolism in lactating sows: arteriovenous differences of milk precursors and the mammary metabolism of (14C)glu-cose and (14C)acetate. Br. J. Nutr. 1969, 23, 319–332.
Maryke Von, Dudzus, Uecker E: Untersuchungen zum Kohlenhydratstoffwechsel hochtragender Sauen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Geburtsmasse des Frekels. (Studies into carbohydrate metabolism of sows in advanced pregnancy, with special reference to piglet birth weight). Mh. Vet.-Med. 1976, 31, 23, 906–910.
Megraw EM, Dunn DE, Biggs HG: Manual and con-tinuousflow colorimetry of triacylglycerols by a fully enzymatic method. Clin. Chem. 1979, 25, 273–278.
Molokwu ECI, Wagner W C: Endocrine physiology of the puerperal sow. J. Anim. Sci. 1973, 33, 1158–1163.
Nachreiner RF, Ginther O J: Gestational and periparturient periods of sows: serum chemical and hematologic changes during gestation. Amer. J. vet. Res. 1972a, 33, 2215–2219.
Nachreiner RF, Ginther O J: Gestational and periparturient periods of sows: serum chemical, hematologic and clinical changes during the periparturient period. Am. J. Vet. Res. 1972b, 33, 2233–2238.
Pégorier JP, Duée PH, Girard J, Peret J: Metabolic fate of non-esterified fatty acids in isolated hepatocytes from newborn and young pigs. Biochem. J. 1983, 272, 93–97.
Pond WG, Yen JT, Mersmann HJ, Yen LH: Effect of gestation diet intake on plasma lipids and progeny birth and weaning weights of genetically lean, obese and contemporary swine. J. Nutr. 1983, 113, 436–446.
Reese DE, Moser BD, Peo ER Jr, Lewis AJ: Influence of energy intake during lactation on the interval from weaning to first estrus in sows. J. Anim. Sci. 1982, 55, 590–598.
Reese DE, Peo Jr ER, Lewis AJ: Relationship of lactation energy intake and occurrence of postwean-ing estrus to body and backfat composition in sows. J. Anim. Sci. 1984, 58, 1236–1244.
Rojkittikhun T, Einarsson S, Edqvist L-E, Uvnäs-Moberg K, Lundeheim N: Relationship between lactation-associated body weight loss, levels of metabolic and reproductive hormones and weaning-to-oestrous interval in primiparous sows. 1992, J. Vet. Med. A. 1992, 39, 426–432.
Ruiz ME, Ewan RC, Speer VC: Serum metabolites of pregnant and hysterectomized gilts fed two levels of energy. J. Anim. Sci. 1971, 32, 1153–1159.
Rydhmer L, Johansson K, Stern S, Eliasson-Selling L: A genetic study of pubertal age, litter traits, weight loss during lactation and relation to growth and leanness in gilts. Acta Agrie. Scand. 1992, 42, 211–219.
SAS Institute Inc.: SAS stat TM User's Guide. Ed. 5 Cary. NC 1985.
Sherer von B, Blume J, Thieman KG: Untersuchungen zur Ketose beim Schwein. (Studies into ketosis in swine) Mh. Vet.-Med. 1980, 35, 855–857.
Simoes Nunes C, Duée PH, Pégorier JP, Rérat A: Effect of feed intake level in late gestation on arterial blood concentrations of energy substrates, insulin and glucagon in the chronically catheterized gilt. Reprod. Nutr. Develop. 1987, 27, 77–87.
Spincer J, Rook JAE, Towers KG: The uptake of plasma constituents by the mammary gland of the sow. Biochem. J. 1969, 111, 727–732.
Standal N, Void E: Lipid mobilization in pigs selected for leanness or fatness. Anim. Prod. 1973, 16, 37–42.
Sterning M, Rydhmer L, Eliasson L, Einarsson S, Andersson K: A study on primiparous sows of the ability to show standing oestrus and to ovulate after weaning. Influences of loss of body weight and backfat during lactation and of litter size, litter weight gain and season. Acta vet. scand. 1990, 31, 227–236.
Stock S, Uvnäs-Moberg K: Oxytocin infusions increase plasma levels of insulin and VIP but not of gastrin in consious dogs. Acta Physiol. Scand. 1985, 125, 205–210.
Stryer L: Biochemistry. (2nd Ed.). WH Freeman & Co. San Francisco 1981. 549–550.
Uvnäs-Moberg K, Eriksson M, Blomquist LE, Kunavongkrit A, Einarsson S: Influence of suckling and feeding on insulin, gastrin, somatostatin and VIP levels in peripheral venous blood of lactating sows. Acta Physiol. Scand. 1984, 121, 31–38.
Wallach J: Interpretation of diagnostic tests. (3rd. Ed.) Little, Brown & Co., Boston, MA. 1978.
Wood JD, Gregory NG, Hall GM, Lister D: Fat mobilization in Pietrain and Large White pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 1977, 37, 167–186.
Yang H, Eastham PR, Phillips P, Whittemore CT: Reproductive performance, body weight and body condition of breeding sows with differing body fatness at parturition, differing nutrition during lactation and differing litter size. Anim. Prod. 1989, 48, 181–201.
This work was supported by grants from the Swedish Council for Forestry and Agricultural Research, the Farmer's Research Council for Information and Development and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
The authors wish to thank Prof. Gösta Bengtsson for inspiring discussions, Dr Lennart Thunberg for valuable advise and Carola Janson for excellent technical assistance.
About this article
Cite this article
Hultén, Ε., Neil, M., Einarsson, S. et al. Energy Metabolism During Late Gestation and Lactation in Muciparous Sows in Relation to Backfat Thickness and the Interval from Weaning to First Oestrus. Acta Vet Scand 34, 9–20 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03548218