Skip to main content

Neurotoxicological Examination of the Piglet Brain after Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Trichlorfon

Nevrotoksikologisk undersøkelse av hjerne hos spedgris etter prenatal og postnatal administrasjon av triklorfon

Abstract

Piglets were given 10 repeated doses of the orga-nophosphorus compound trichlorfon during the postnatal period in order to examine the effect on the brain development (Experiment 1). Following prenatal exposure to trichlorfon, the ability of a presumptive hypoplastic cerebellum and cerebrum at birth, to regenerate postnatally was investigated (Experiment 2).

Administration of repeated doses of trichlorfon postnatally was accompanied by only small changes in brain weights, morphology and transmitter enzyme activity (choline acetyltransferase, glutamate decarboxylase, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase) in 35 days old piglets. Animals exposed prenatally, and sacrificed at the age of 35 days, showed a significant increase in brain weights and enzyme activities. The animals did, however, not reach control values in cerebral weight, cerebellar weight or total enzyme activities. Morphological changes still showed regional loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. The study clearly indicated that the pig brain was less vulnerable to trichlorfon in the postnatal period of development than when exposed to the compound prenatally.

Sammendrag

Spedgriser ble gitt 10 gjentatte doser med organofosfatet triklorfon postnatalt for å undersøke effekten på hjernens utvikling (Eksperiment 1). Etter prenatal administrasjon av triklorfon ble regenerasjonsevnen til en presumptiv hypoplastisk cerebellum og cerebrum undersøkt postnatalt (Eksperiment 2).

Administrasjon av triklorfon postnatalt resulterte utelukkende i små forandringer i hjernevekter, morfologi og transmitter enzymaktiviteter (kolin acetyltransferase, glutamat dekarboksylase, aromatisk aminosyre dekarboksylase) hos 35 dager gamle grisunger. Dyr som ble eksponert prenatalt, men ikke postnatalt, viste en signifikant økning i hjernevektene og enzymaktivitetene 35 dager post partum. Kontrollverdiene av cerebrumvekter, cerebellumvekter og totale enzymaktiviteter ble imidlertid ikke oppnådd hos disse dyrene. Stedvis tap av Purkinjeceller i cerebellum ble fremdeles observert.

Undersøkelsen viste at hjernen hos gris er lite sårbar overfor triklorfon i den postnatale periode av utviklingen sammenlignet med prenatalt.

References

  • Albers R W, Brady R O: The distribution of glutamate decarboxylase in the nervous system of the rhesus monkey. J. biol. Chem. 1959,234, 926–928.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Berge G Ν, Fonnum F, Brodai Ρ: Neurotoxic effects of prenatal trichlorfon administration in pigs. Acta vet. scand. 1987,28, 321–332.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Broch O J, Fonnum F: The regional and subcellular distribution of catechol-O-methyl-transferase in the rat brain. J. Neurochem. 1972,19, 2049–2055.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Belske G, Kronevi T, Lindgren NO: Congenital tremor in pigs in Sweden. Nord-Vet-Med. 1978,30, 534–537.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davison A N, Dobbing J: Myelination as a vulnerable period in brain development. Brit.med. Bull. 1966,22, 40–44.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dickerson JWT, Dobbing J: Prenatal and postnatal growth and development of the central nervous system of the pig. Proc.Roy.Soc.B. 1967,166, 384–395.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dobbing J: Vulnerable periods of brain development. In: CIBA Foundation Symposia. Lipids, Malnutrition & the Developing Brain. Elsevier, Amsterdam 1972, p. 9–20.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fatzer R, Häni H, Scholl E: Kongenitaler Tremor und zerebelläre Hypoplasie bei Ferkeln nach Be-handlung der Mutterschweine mit Neguvon® wâhrend der Trächtigkeit. (Congenital tremor and cerebellar hypoplasia in piglets after treatment of sows with Neguvon® during pregnancy). Schweiz-Arch-Tierheilk. 1981,123, 29–36.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fonnum F: A rapid radiochemical method for the determination of choline acetyltransferase. J.Neurochem. 1975,25, 407–409.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fonnum F, Walaas I, Iversen E: Localization of GABAergic, cholinergic and aminergic structures on the mesolimbic system. J.Neurochem. 1977,29, 221–230.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gamlem HN, Lund A, Moen J H, Berge G Ν: Kon-genital tremor og cerebellum-hypoplasi hos sped-griser som en mulig følge av Neguvon®-behand-ling av drektige purker. (Congenital tremor and cerebellar hypoplasia in piglets associated with trichlorfon-treatment of pregnant sows). II. En kasuistisk meddelelse. Norsk Vet.tidsskr. 1983,6, 385–387.

    Google Scholar 

  • Knox B, Askaa J, Basse A, Bitsch V, Eskildsen M, Mandrup M, Ottosen HE, Øverby E, Pedersen KB, Rasmussen F: Congenital ataxia and tremor with cerebellar hypoplasia in piglets born by sows treated with Neguvon® vet. during pregnancy. Nord-Vet.-Med. 1978,30, 538–545.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kronevi T: Kan Neguvon®-behandling av dräktige suggor orsaka cerebellar hypoplasi hos gris? (Can Neguvon®-treatment of pregnant sows cause cerebellar hypoplasia in piglets?) Svensk Vet.-tidn. 1917,29, 931–932.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kronevi T, Bäckstrom L: Kongenital tremor (skak-sjuke) hos gris (Congenital tremor in piglets). Svensk Vet.-tidn. 1977,29, 837–841.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kronevi T, Lindquist J O: Mera om kongenital tremor (skaksjuke) hos gris. (More about congenital tremor in pigs. Case report). Svensk Vet.-tidn. 1978,50, 415–416.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sterri S H, Fonnum F: Isolation of organic anions by extraction with liquid anion exchangers and its application to micromethods for acethylcholine-sterase and 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase. Eur.J.Biochem. 1978,91, 215–222.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgment

The authors wish to express their sincere thanks to professor Per Brodai for useful help with the histological examination and to professor Inger Nafstad for professional assistance, valuable advice and comments.

This work was supported by grants from the Norwegian Agricultural Research Council.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Berge, G.N., Fonnum, F., Søli, N.E. et al. Neurotoxicological Examination of the Piglet Brain after Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Trichlorfon. Acta Vet Scand 28, 313–320 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03548599

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03548599

Keywords

  • organophosphorus compound
  • CNS toxicity
  • regeneration