Skip to main content

Variation of Transferrin and Esterase in Sera of Dogs

Variasjon av transferrin og esterase i hundesera


Transferrin (Tf), arylesterase (ArE) and another esterase (Es) have been studied in sera from 1023 dogs by the use of isoelectric focusing (IEF) in polyacrylamide gels. Tf types were determined after protein staining in gels of pH range 5–6 and 5–7. The expression of Tf types as measured by strength of bands varied considerably. The Tf band patterns are explained by the occurrence of the 4 codominant alleles, TfF, TfM ΤfM2 and TfS of which TfM1 and TfM2are common. Some breeds had similar gene frequencies, others differed considerably. For determination of ArE types specifically stained gels of pH range 4.2–4.9 and 4.0–6.5 were employed. The ArE phenotypes appeared as multiple band patterns of which the individual bands varied considerably in strength. Atypical ArE patterns were observed in dogs suffering from certain diseases. The normal ArE phenotypes are explained by a total of 7 codominant alleles of which ArEN and ArET have not been previously described. Gene frequencies varied between breeds. For the other esterase (Es) the appearance and position of bands indicate at least 2 alleles in this system.


Transferrin (Tf), arylesterase (ArE) og en annen esterase (Es) er ved bruk av isoelektrisk fokusering (IEF) i polyakrylamid geler undersøkt i sera fra 1023 hunder. Tf typene ble bestemt i geler med pH områder 5–6 og 5–7 etter protein farging. Typenes uttrykksform, bedømt etter båndmønstre, viste stor variasjon. Båndmønstrene forklares med forekomst av de 4 kodominante alleler, TfF, TfM1, TfM2 og TfS hvorav TfM1 og TfM2 er vanlige. Genfrekvenser var de samme for visse raser, men varierte for andre. For diagnostisering av ArE typer ble det brukt spesifikk farging av geler med pH områder 4.2–4.9 og 4.0–6.5. ArE fenotypene opptrådte som multiple båndmønstre hvor de individuelle bånd viste stor variasjon m.h.t. styrke. Atypiske ArE mønstre ble observert i hunder med visse sjukdommer. De normale ArE fenotyper forklares gjennom forekomst av 7 kodominante alleler hvorav ArEN og ArET ikke tidligere er beskrevet. Det var variasjon av genfrekvenser mellom raser. For den andre esterase (Es) tyder utseende og plassering av bånd på minst 2 alleler i dette system.


  • Augustinsson Κ B: Multiple forms of esterase in vertebrate blood plasma. Ann. Ν. Y. Acad. Sci. 1961,94, 844–860.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Augustinsson Κ B, Olsson B: A genetically determined enzyme in the pig. Nature 1960,187, 924–925.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bernoco D, Sartore G, Bona C: Studi preliminari sul polimorfismo biochimico nel cane. (Preliminary studies of biochemical polymorphism in dogs). Atti della Società Italiana della Scienze Veterina–rie 1966,20, 343–346.

    Google Scholar 

  • Braend M: Serum transferrins of dogs. Proc. Xth Europ. Conf. Animal Blood Groups biochem. Polymorph. (Paris 1966) 1967, 319–322.

    Google Scholar 

  • Braend M: Genetic variation of an esterase system in sera of dogs. Acta vet. scand. 1984,25, 526–535.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Clark P, Ryan GE, Czuppon A B: Biochemical genetic markers in the family Canidae. Aust. J. Zool. 1975,23, 411–417.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dixon M, Webb Ε C: Enzymes. Third ed. Longman Group Limited London 1979.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gahne B: Studies on the inheritance of electrophore–tic forms of transferrins, albumins, prealbumins and plasma esterases of horses. Genetics, 1966,53, 681–694.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Juneja R K, Christensen K, Andresen E, Gahne B: Frequencies of transferrin types in various breeds of domestic dogs. Anim. Blood Groups biochem. Genet. 1981,12, 79–88.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Knox W E: Enzyme Patterns in Fetal, Adult and Neoplastic Rat Tissues. S. Karger, Basel, 1972.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maeda K, McKenzie Η A, Shaw D C: Comparison of bovine serum transferrin A and D2. I Amino acid residue differences. Anim. Blood Groups biochem. Genet. 1984,75, 299–312.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reetz I: Zur Frage der Elternschaftskontrolle bei deutschen Hunderassen. (Parentage control in German dog breeds). Dtsch. tierärzl. W.schr. 1981,88, 5–8.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stevens R W C, Townsley M E: Canine serum transferrins. J. Hered. 1970,61, 71–73.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sugiura S, Tanabe Y, Ota K: Genetic polymorphism of eserine resistant esterases in canine plasma. Anim. Blood Groups biochem. Genet. 1977,8, 121–126.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vriesendorp Η Μ {etet al.}: Joint report of 1st international workshop on canine immunogenetics. Tissue Antigens 1973,3, 145–172.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


We are grateful to Dr. Ε. M. Tucker, Institute for Animal Physiology, Babraham, Cambridge, England, who read and improved the manuscript. We also want to thank professor Jorunn Grondalen and her staff, Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine and Director of Stovner Animal Clinic, Torbjørn Owren, and his staff who kindly provided dog samples. Norsk Kennel Klub deserve our thanks for financial assistance. We also thank Ingrid Harbitz, Department of Biochemistry, Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine who kindly developed the auto–radiographs.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Braend, M., Andersen, A.E. Variation of Transferrin and Esterase in Sera of Dogs. Acta Vet Scand 28, 435–444 (1987).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • canine
  • isoelectric focusing
  • expression
  • polymorphism
  • genes
  • frequencies
  • breeds
  • comparisons