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Table 2 Difference in biosecurity scores according to herd characteristics

From: Biosecurity level and health management practices in 60 Swedish farrow-to-finish herds

  Gender of person responsible for biosecurity in farrowing unit: female (upper row) or male (lower row) Herd size: smaller (upper row) or larger (lower row) Years of experience: less (upper row) or more (lower row) than 23 years Conventional herd (upper row) or outdoor production (lower row) Conventional herd (upper row) or satellite herd (lower row) Conventional herd (upper row) or SPF herd (lower row) Responsible person education level basic – lower (upper row) or higher – university (lower row)
Biosecurity category M IQR P-value M IQR P-value M IQR P-value M IQR P-value M IQR P-value M IQR P-value M IQR P-value
Purchase of animals and semen 100 18 0.93 100 17 0.79 100 18 0.8 100 18 0.67 100 18 0.36 100 18 a 100 20 0.47
100 17   100 15   100 15 7 88 20   100 16   100 0   100 15  
Transport of animals, removal of manure and dead animals 62 30 0.09 52 28 0.45 54 25 0.89 55 25 0.58 56 25 0.32 56 25 0.03 58 30 0.47
50 23   59 27   54 28   50 42   50 31   78 26   53 25  
Feed, water and equipment supply 40 20 0.22 40 15 0.34 40 20 0.39 40 20 0.78 40 20 0.55 40 20 0.03 40 20 0.86
40 20   40 20   40 20   30 27   40 10   73 40   40 20  
Personnel and visitors 74 40 0.10 62 49 0.25 71 43 0.56 68 41 0.93 68 41 0.14 68 41 0.01 59 38 0.25
59 41   71 41   65 50   76 94   59 40   100 6   71 46  
Vermin and bird control 90 18 0.02 80 30 0.11 90 13 0.01 80 30 0.64 80 30 0.06 80 30 a 80 20 0.89
80 30   90 30   80 30   70 10   90 18   90 0   80 23  
Environment and region 90 20 0.82 90 23 0.63 90 30 0.8 90 20 0.91 90 20 0.18 90 20 a 85 30 0.08
90 30   90 22   90 20 6 90 80   90 28   90 0   90 30  
Subtotal external biosecurity score 71 10 0.01 67 14 0.21 70 13 0.5 68 14 0.82 68 14 0.75 68 14 0.00 67 14 0.35
64 14   71 14   67 17 8 70 27   65 14   86 10 6 70 13  
Disease management 80 40 0.03 60 60 0.25 80 45 0.4 60 60 0.20 60 60 0.59 60 60 0.20 60 40 0.29
40 60   80 60   80 60 2 100 40   80 50   100 40   80 60  
Farrowing and suckling period 54 33 0.41 61 23 0.64 54 30 0.8 64 21 0.18 64 21 0.05 64 21 0.59 57 23 0.64
64 21   61 36   64 28 5 79 15   47 26   64 28   64 36  
Nursery unit 86 20 0.59 86 15 0.86 86 15 0.3 86 15 0.21 86 15 0.98 86 15 0.65 71 19 0.02
86 15   86 15   86 15 6 93 *   86 15   71 15   86 11  
Fattening unit 79 14 0.13 79 24 0.40 86 14 0.35 79 31 0.09 79 31 0.08 79 31 0.18 86 31 0.64
93 14    90 14   79 29   93 14 93 14   93 21   83 14  
Measures between compartments and the use of equipment 54 22 0.002 39 20 0.24 54 19 0.01 38 22 0.98 38 22 0.03 38 22 0.53 43 22 0.36
39 21   50 14   39 17   39 25   52 14   47b np   45 26  
Cleaning and disinfection 50 24 0.81 55 29 0.55 55 21 0.1 45 36 1.0 45 36 0.09 45 36 0.69 37 35 0.03
48 20   47 23   45 20 0 45 7   55 17   55 20   55 16  
Subtotal internal biosecurity score 62 15 0.09 58 14 0.31 62 12 0.0 55 16 0.28 55 16 0.05 55 16 0.44 55 14 0.03
55 13   62 20   54 15 7 64 19   62 10   62 21   62 12  
Total score 68 11 0.01 64 12 0.25 66 8 0.1 64 14 0.80 64 14 0.36 64 14 0.03 63 14 0.12
63 10   67 14   63 17 8 64 15   65 11   73 7   66 13  
  1. Overall scores and subcategory scores between herds with a female versus male caretaker of piglets and sows (female n = 28, male = 31), smaller (96–185 sows, n = 30) and larger herds (190–1200 sows, n = 29), farmers with <23 years (range 5–22 years, n = 30) of experience and farmers with ≥23 years (range 23–41 years, n = 29) of experience, conventional herds (n = 34) and outdoor production (n = 3), satellite herds (n = 19) and SPF herds (n = 3) and lower (n = 26) and higher education level (n = 30) for personnel among 60 Swedish farrow-to-finish herds. The significance of differences between groups was assessed by Mann–Whitney test. Significant P-values are indicated by bold characters.
  2. M = medians, IQR = Interquartile range, a = statistical analysis not possible due to data missing, b = n is 2, np = not possible to calculate IQR.