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Table 5 Results of multivariable linear regression analysis for risk factors for within-herd cow mortality rate over years 2017–2018 in 212 Estonian dairy herds

From: Herd-level risk factors for cow and calf on-farm mortality in Estonian dairy herds

VariableCategoriesnCoefficienta95% Confidence IntervalsCategory p-valuep-value
Handling animalsFarmer and/or family members510   < 0.001
Employees in addition to farmer/family260.10− 0.22; 0.420.543 
Employees only1350.640.35; 0.93 < 0.001 
Housing systemTie stall760  0.008
Free stall130-0.37− 0.65; − 0.090.011 
Combined60.28− 0.29; 0.850.337 
GrazingNo830  0.006
Yes96-0.37− 0.72; − 0.030.034 
Only dry cows330.25− 0.03; 0.520.076 
Frequency of prophylactic hoof trimmingNo390  0.002
Less than once a year31-0.37− 0.69; − 0.040.028 
Once a year60-0.56− 0.87; − 0.25 < 0.001 
 ≥ 2 times per year82-0.31− 0.67; 0.060.105 
Herd size x herd average proportion of stillbirths (SB)Herds with < 130 cows and SB < 7.5%590   < 0.001
Herd with < 130 cows and SB ≥ 7.5%470.570.29; 0.85 < 0.001 
Herd with ≥ 130 cows and SB < 7.5%470.29− 0.05; 0.630.092 
Herd with ≥ 130 cows and SB ≥ 7.5%590.430.08; 0.780.016 
Herd average number of lactations 212-0.30− 0.55; − 0.050.0200.020
RegionbNortheast580   < 0.001
Southeast44-0.75− 1.01; − 0.48 < 0.001 
Southwest72-0.41− 0.66; − 0.160.001 
Northwest38-0.46− 0.75; − 0.180.002 
Intercept 2123.082.30; 3.87 < 0.001 
  1. aSquare root transformation was made for the outcome variable „within-herd cow mortality rate “
  2. bNortheast Estonia: Ida-Viru, Lääne-Viru, Jõgeva, Järva county; Southeast Estonia: Tartu, Valga, Võru, Põlva county; Southwest Estonia: Pärnu, Viljandi, Saare county; Northwest Estonia: Harju, Rapla, Lääne, Hiiu county