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  1. Multimodal analgesia consists of the combination of analgesic drugs at low doses to act in different places along the path of pain. Studies with continuous infusion of analgesic drugs in cats are not common. T...

    Authors: Janaina Maria Xavier Corrêa, Raquel Vieira Niella, Jéssica Natália Silva de Oliveira, Alex Costa Silva Junior, Claire Souza da Costa Marques, Taísa Miranda Pinto, Elisângela Barboza da Silva, Suzane Lilian Beier, Fabiana Lessa Silva and Mário Sérgio Lima de Lavor
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:49
  2. Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders with known natural occurrence in humans and a few other mammalian species. The diseases are experimentally transmissible, and the agent is derived from the ...

    Authors: Michael Andreas Tranulis, Dolores Gavier-Widén, Jørn Våge, Maria Nöremark, Sirkka-Liisa Korpenfelt, Maria Hautaniemi, Laura Pirisinu, Romolo Nonno and Sylvie Lafond Benestad
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:48
  3. Small poultry flock ownership has become a popular hobby in Europe and North America in recent years but there is a general lack of information regarding bird health and welfare. This retrospective analysis of...

    Authors: Désirée Seger Jansson, Faruk Otman, Elisabeth Bagge, Ylva Lindgren, Pernille Engelsen Etterlin and Helena Eriksson
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:47
  4. Water treadmills are frequently used in the rehabilitation of dogs, for example with the purpose of re-building muscular strength after surgery. However, little is known about how different water depths and ve...

    Authors: Anne Désiré Vitger, Tanja Bruhn-Rasmussen, Eja Oppenlænder Pedersen, Lene Høeg Fuglsang-Damgaard and Adrian Paul Harrison
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:46
  5. Primary laryngeal neoplasms are rare in cats, with lymphoma and squamous cell carcinoma being the most commonly diagnosed tumour types. These tumours are usually highly aggressive, difficult to treat, and have...

    Authors: Filippo Torrigiani, Maria Elena Gelain, Laura Cavicchioli, Roberta Di Maggio, Tommaso Banzato and Federico Bonsembiante
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:45
  6. The physiology of sheep as small ruminants is remarkably different from monogastric animals especially regarding the forestomach system. Using sheep for surgical procedures during scientific research thereby p...

    Authors: Lucie M. Grimm, Esther Humann-Ziehank, Norman Zinne, Patrick Zardo and Martin Ganter
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:43
  7. Centrifugation is routinely employed in handling the ejaculates of some species, but it is not part of the commonly used protocols in ram. However, the development and implementation of new assisted reproducti...

    Authors: Marta Neila-Montero, Marta F. Riesco, Mercedes Alvarez, Rafael Montes-Garrido, Juan Carlos Boixo, Paulino de Paz, Luis Anel-Lopez and Luis Anel
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:42
  8. Despite decades of research, the early phases of metastatic development are still not fully understood. Canine osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly aggressive cancer, with a high metastatic rate (> 90%), despite a lo...

    Authors: Mikael Kerboeuf, Erling Olaf Koppang, Anita Haug Haaland, Frode Lingaas, Øyvind Sverre Bruland, Jon Teige and Lars Moe
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:41
  9. To prevent re-emergence of wildlife-mediated rabies in Finland, oral rabies vaccine baits are distributed every year during autumn in southern Finland in a vaccination zone bordering Russia. Recently, Finland ...

    Authors: Ad Vos, Tiina Nokireki, Marja Isomursu, Tuija Gadd and Ferenc Kovacs
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:40
  10. Caryospora bigenetica is an intracellular protozoan parasite, which in its primary hosts, typically snakes, is found it the intestine. Extraintestinal multiplication with the development of tissue cysts takes pla...

    Authors: Seppo Saari, Kirsti Schildt, Sanna Malkamäki, Ulla Andersin and Antti Sukura
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:39
  11. Type-4 abomasal ulcers (U4) are perforated ulcers causing diffuse peritonitis. This retrospective study describes the clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings in 38 calves with U4. The medical record...

    Authors: Ueli Braun, Christina Widmer, Karl Nuss, Monika Hilbe and Christian Gerspach
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:38
  12. Mastectomy is the most common procedure for treatment of mammary tumours. Dogs undergoing mastectomy have a risk of developing surgical site infections (SSI) and other postoperative complications. However, pot...

    Authors: Philip Spåre, Ingrid Ljungvall, Karl Ljungvall and Annika Bergström
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:35
  13. Septic arthritis (SA) is a serious condition in dogs that requires a prompt diagnosis and treatment to minimize long-term joint pathology. Although bacterial detection in synovial fluid (SF) through culture or...

    Authors: Alexandra Vilén, Bo Nilson, Ann-Cathrine Petersson, Mariana Cigut, Christel Nielsen and Henriette Ström
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:34
  14. Health assessment of seals in captivity include haematology and serum biochemistry measurements. Because such parameters differ between species, it is crucial to have species-specific reference values for the ...

    Authors: Morten Tryland, Christian Lydersen, Kit Maureen Kovacs, Espen Rafter and Stein Istre Thoresen
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:33

    The Correction to this article has been published in Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:36

  15. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is caused by the neurotropic tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). In dogs, this virus may affect the central nervous system (CNS), causing meningoencephalitis, meningomyelitis, r...

    Authors: Yvonne Alnefelt, Sofie Van Meervenne, Katarina Varjonen, Anna Tidholm and Cecilia Rohdin
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:32
  16. Intervertebral disc extrusions in the thoracolumbar region are a common spinal neurologic disorder in dogs and usually considered a neurological emergency. Several factors, like timing of surgery, have previou...

    Authors: Almut Immekeppel, Stefan Rupp, Stanislas Demierre, Kai Rentmeister, Andrea Meyer-Lindenberg, Julia Goessmann, Monty Siddartha Bali, Fenella Schmidli-Davies and Franck Forterre
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:30
  17. Acute pancreatitis in dogs is a prevalent disease characterised by mild to severe inflammation. Treatment with anti-inflammatory corticosteroids has been widely debated but is not generally recommended in vete...

    Authors: Kari-Anne Bjørnkjær-Nielsen and Charlotte Reinhard Bjørnvad
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:28
  18. Steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA) is an immune-mediated disease of the leptomeninges and its associated blood vessels, typically responsive to corticosteroids. Clinically relevant haemorrhage is a...

    Authors: Jessica Zilli, Agnieszka Olszewska, Daniela Farke and Martin Jürgen Schmidt
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:27
  19. Naso-ethmoidal meningoencephalocele is usually a congenital anomaly consisting of a protrusion of cerebral tissue and meninges into the ethmoidal labyrinth. The condition is a rare cause of structural epilepsy...

    Authors: Abtin Mojarradi, Sofie Van Meervenne, Alejandro Suarez-Bonnet and Steven De Decker
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:26
  20. Wide variation in fertility rates is observed when using frozen bull semen, even when the bulls have met quality standards for semen production. Therefore, a simple and reliable test to assess the freezing pot...

    Authors: Maja Zakošek Pipan, Petra Zrimšek, Breda Jakovac Strajn, Katarina Pavšič Vrtač, Tanja Knific and Janko Mrkun
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:25
  21. Captive European bison (Bison bonasus) play an active role in conservation measures for this species; this includes education, which may conflict with these animals’ welfare. The effect of the presence of visitor...

    Authors: Daniel Klich, Rafał Łopucki, Marta Gałązka, Agnieszka Ścibior, Dorota Gołębiowska, Rita Brzezińska, Bartosz Kruszewski, Tadeusz Kaleta and Wanda Olech
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:24
  22. Domestic animals with severe spontaneous spinal cord injury (SCI), including dogs and cats that are deep pain perception negative (DPP−), can benefit from specific evaluations involving neurorehabilitation int...

    Authors: Ângela Martins, Débora Gouveia, Ana Cardoso, Óscar Gamboa, Darryl Millis and António Ferreira
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:22

    The Correction to this article has been published in Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:31

  23. Cryptorchidism in dogs is of clinical concern due to its association with development of Sertoli cell tumours, seminomas and spermatic cord torsion. A patent inguinal ring has been found as a risk factor for p...

    Authors: Dorcas Oyueley Kodie, Noah Segun Oyetayo, Oladotun Solomon Awoyemi, Cecelia Omowunmi Oguntoye and Oghenemega David Eyarefe
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:21
  24. The knowledge on dairy calves’ needs with regards to milk feeding and social housing is expanding but to be able to make improvements, knowledge is needed on how calves are managed at present in Norway. The ai...

    Authors: Julie Føske Johnsen, Ingrid Hunter Holmøy, Ane Nødtvedt and Cecilie Marie Mejdell
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:20
  25. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere and Australia. The presence of nematode-infected foxes in urbanized areas increases the risk of transmission of nematodes to domestic d...

    Authors: Agnieszka Tylkowska, Bogumiła Pilarczyk, Agnieszka Tomza-Marciniak and Renata Pilarczyk
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:19
  26. Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in small ruminants result in production losses, and consequently economic losses, and are an animal welfare problem in most countries in the Nordic-Baltic region. Intensive use...

    Authors: Agnė Beleckė, Tomas Kupčinskas, Inga Stadalienė, Johan Höglund, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Snorre Stuen and Saulius Petkevičius
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:18
  27. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in companion dogs, but little is known of these conditions in show dogs. This study assessed body condition score (BCS) of show dogs of six selected popul...

    Authors: Sanna Lindåse, Tilda Feltenmark, Malin Krantz and Josefin Söder
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:17
  28. The vector-borne human viral zoonosis tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is of growing concern in Sweden. The area where TBE is considered endemic has expanded, with an increasing geographical distribution of Ixodes r...

    Authors: Gunilla Blomqvist, Katarina Näslund, Linda Svensson, Cécile Beck and Jean Francois Valarcher
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:16
  29. Mink urinary tract disease (MUTD) often presents as urolithiasis and/or cystitis and is known as an important cause of mortality in mink kits during the early growth season. Antimicrobial flock treatment has b...

    Authors: Karin Mundbjerg, Peder Elbek Pedersen and Anne Sofie Hammer
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:15
  30. Granulomatous myositis is a rare condition in both humans and dogs. In humans it is most frequently related to sarcoidosis, where a concurrent granulomatous neuritis has been reported occasionally. Simultaneou...

    Authors: Josefin Hultman, Marco Rosati, Tone Kristensen Grøn, Kaspar Matiasek, Cathrine Trangerud and Karin Hultin Jäderlund
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:14
  31. Semi-domesticated reindeer represent an important livestock industry and livelihood for a proportion of the human population in northern Fennoscandia. Reindeer husbandry is considered an extensive animal husba...

    Authors: Lene Idland, Amalie Moen Juul, Ellen Karin Solevåg, Kristoffer Relling Tysnes, Lucy Jane Robertson and Kjersti Selstad Utaaker
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:13
  32. Rabies vaccination of wildlife carnivores is a powerful tool to prevent, control and eliminate rabies. The presence of neutralizing rabies antibodies in blood is considered a reliable indicator of adequate vac...

    Authors: Dainius Zienius, Janina Mickutė, Arnoldas Pautienius, Juozas Grigas, Arunas Stankevičius, Gediminas Pridotkas, Eugenijus Jacevičius, Jolita Kemeraitė and Ingrida Jacevičienė
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:12
  33. In cows with acute toxic mastitis (ATM), the leukogram aids in the assessment of the severity of disease. The goal of our study was to compare the leukogram of 158 cows with ATM (cases) and 168 clinically heal...

    Authors: Ueli Braun, Christian Gerspach, Barbara Riond, Carina Oschlies, Sabrina Corti and Ulrich Bleul
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:11
  34. Heterophilic antibodies in serum and plasma can interfere with mammalian antibodies in immunoassays and result in false test results, usually false positive. Although studies screening for heterophilic antibod...

    Authors: Bo Dong, Daniel Bergman and Bodil Ström Holst
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:10
  35. Goatpox is a viral disease caused by infection with goatpox virus (GTPV) of the genus Capripoxvirus, Poxviridae family. Capripoxviruses cause serious disease to livestock and contribute to huge economic losses. G...

    Authors: Jihane Hamdi, Zahra Bamouh, Mohammed Jazouli, Meryem Alhyane, Najet Safini, Khalid Omari Tadlaoui, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri and Mehdi El Harrak
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:9
  36. Gastric carcinoma (GC) is uncommon in dogs, except in predisposed breeds such as Belgian Shepherd dogs (BSD) of the Tervuren and Groenendael varieties. When GC is diagnosed in dogs it is often late in the dise...

    Authors: Marcus Vinicius Cândido, Pernillä Syrjä, Mohsen Hanifeh, Jaan Lepajõe, Kati Salla, Susanne Kilpinen, Peter-John Mäntylä Noble and Thomas Spillmann
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:7
  37. Equine coital exanthema (ECE) caused by equid alphaherpesvirus 3 (EHV-3) is a contagious venereal disease. It is characterized by the formation of papules, vesicles, pustules and ulcers on the external genital...

    Authors: Lilja Thorsteinsdóttir, Gunnar Örn Guðmundsson, Höskuldur Jensson, Sigurbjörg Torsteinsdóttir and Vilhjálmur Svansson
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:6
  38. With intensive use of anthelmintic drugs in recent decades, anthelmintic resistance (AR) in horse nematodes is becoming a growing issue in many countries. However, there is little available information about t...

    Authors: Evelina Dauparaitė, Tomas Kupčinskas, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna and Saulius Petkevičius
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:5
  39. Acute kidney injury (AKI) in horses may develop as a complication of a primary disease or following the administration of nephrotoxic drugs, and may pose a diagnostic challenge. Hence, the main objective of th...

    Authors: Natalia Siwinska, Agnieszka Zak and Urszula Paslawska
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:3
  40. Recumbent cows are a diagnostic challenge because of a wide range of differential diagnoses, which include trauma, neurological and metabolic disorders, malnutrition and mineral deficiencies. This case report ...

    Authors: Lilli Bittner, Kjelt Krämer, Adriana Wöckel, Teja Snedec, Cora Delling, Denny Böttcher, Gabor Köller, Walter Baumgartner, Wolfram Richardt and Alexander Starke
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:2
  41. Since January 2019, surgical castration of male piglets must be performed using local anaesthesia, if farmers deliver pigs to the primary exporting slaughterhouses according to the “Danish quality scheme”; a v...

    Authors: Lotte Skade, Charlotte Sonne Kristensen, Mai Britt Friis Nielsen and Line Hummelmose Diness
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2021 63:1
  42. On farms, the currently approved and most widely practised method of euthanising non-viable piglets is blunt force trauma to the head followed by exsanguination. However, the use of this method is criticised d...

    Authors: Johannes Husheer, Matthias Luepke, Peter Dziallas, Karl-Heinz Waldmann and Alexandra von Altrock
    Citation: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2020 62:67

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