- Open Access
Chronic pneumonia in calves after experimental infection with Mycoplasma bovis strain 1067: Characterization of lung pathology, persistence of variable surface protein antigens and local immune response
© Hermeyer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
- Received: 4 November 2011
- Accepted: 4 February 2012
- Published: 4 February 2012
Mycoplasma bovis is associated with pneumonia in calves characterized by the development of chronic caseonecrotic lesions with the agent persisting within the lesion. The purposes of this study were to characterize the morphology of lung lesions, examine the presence of M. bovis variable surface protein (Vsp) antigens and study the local immune responses in calves after infection with M. bovis strain 1067.
Lung tissue samples from eight calves euthanased three weeks after experimental infection with M. bovis were examined by bacteriology and pathology. Lung lesions were evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for wide spectrum cytokeratin and for M. bovis Vsp antigens and pMB67 antigen. IHC identification and quantitative evaluation of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and immunoglobulin (IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA)-containing plasma cells was performed. Additionally, expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) was studied by IHC.
Suppurative pneumonic lesions were found in all calves. In two calves with caseonecrotic pneumonia, necrotic foci were surrounded by epithelial cells resembling bronchial or bronchiolar epithelium. In all calves, M. bovis Vsp antigens were constantly present in the cytoplasm of macrophages and were also present extracellularly at the periphery of necrotic foci. There was a considerable increase in numbers of IgG1- and IgG2-positive plasma cells among which IgG1-containing plasma cells clearly predominated. Statistical evaluation of the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, however, did not reveal statistically significant differences between inoculated and control calves. In M. bovis infected calves, hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was characterized by strong MHC class II expression of lymphoid cells, but only few of the macrophages demarcating the caseonecrotic foci were positive for MHC class II.
The results from this study show that infection of calves with M. bovis results in various lung lesions including caseonecrotic pneumonia originating from bronchioli and bronchi. There is long-term persistence of M. bovis as demonstrated by bacteriology and immunohistochemistry for M. bovis antigens, i.e. Vsp antigens and pMB67. The persistence of the pathogen and its ability to evade the specific immune response may in part result from local downregulation of antigen presenting mechanisms and an ineffective humoral immune response with prevalence of IgG1 antibodies that, compared to IgG2 antibodies, are poor opsonins.
- Cattle, Mycoplasma bovis
- CD4+ T cells
- CD8+ cells
- MHC class II
Mycoplasma bovis is an important cause of chronic pneumonia in feedlot cattle and dairy calves. Both in spontaneous and experimentally infected animals, different patterns of inflammatory lung lesions occur, among which caseonecrotic pneumonia is considered distinctive . Findings in spontaneously occurring M. bovis infections suggest that necrotic lesions originate from bronchioles or small bronchi . The chronicity of lung lesions and the persistence of M. bovis implies that the immune response is insufficient in eliminating the pathogen [2, 3]. However, the mechanisms leading to tissue damage and how M. bovis evades the host immune response are incompletely understood [1, 4]. The factors of M. bovis potentially associated with virulence are the variable surface membrane proteins (Vsps) . In addition, other surface proteins, unrelated to the Vsps, e.g. pMB67, have been described [6–8]. Variable expression of these proteins may be a major mechanism by which M. bovis evades the immune response . In a previous report the in vivo expression of Vsp antigens in lung tissue of calves inoculated with a clonal variant of M. bovis type strain PG45 by using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and different monoclonal Vsp-specific antibodies during early postinfectious stages, i.e. between 2 and 10 days post inoculation (p.i.) was described . So far, it is not known if Vsp antigens are still present during the chronic stages of pneumonic lesions induced by M. bovis.
There are several reports, in which the humoral and cellular immune responses, i.e. presence of antibodies in sera and tracheobronchial lavage fluid, and in vitro stimulation and cytokine production of peripheral T lymphocytes, in spontaneous or experimentally M. bovis infected cattle was studied [10–12]. Pneumonic lesions in M. bovis- infected animals are usually accompanied by proliferation of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) collectively known as "cuffing pneumonia" [2, 3, 13, 14]. There is, however, only limited information about the types of cells involved of the immune response in lungs of M. bovis infected cattle [10–12, 15, 16].
In this investigation, the lungs of eight calves were examined three weeks p.i. with M. bovis strain 1067. One aim was to further characterize the pathology of experimentally induced lung lesions. The second aim was to examine the presence of Vsp antigens within lung tissue and to correlate the findings with local immune responses, i.e. immunoglobulin-containing plasma cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, and expression of MHC class II.
Animals and experimental infection
For this study, lung tissue samples from eight experimentally infected male calves and four male control calves, all of the Simmental breed and originating from different M. bovis infection experiments were used. Before inoculation, tracheobronchial lavage fluid (TBLF) was taken from all calves to exclude the presence of M. bovis by bacteriological culture [17, 18] and antibodies to M. bovis by ELISA [19, 20]. The cultures were negative. In blood samples, M. bovis-specific serum antibodies were not detected by ELISA. All calves were inoculated at the age of approximately four weeks by the intratracheal route with 30 ml of fresh culture containing 1 × 108 (Nos. 1 and 3), 1 × 1010 (Nos. 2 and 4) or were inoculated endobronchially with the same volume of inoculum containing 7.4 × 109 (Nos. 5-8) colony forming units (CFU) per ml of M. bovis strain 1067 . Before inoculation, calves were sedated by intramuscular injection of 0.05 mg xylazine (Rompun, Bayer, Austria) per kg body weight. M. bovis was inoculated with a 6 mm diameter fiberoptic bronchoscope (polydiagnost, Pfaffenhofen, Germany). Infected calves (Nos. 1-8) and control calves (Nos. 9-12) were housed in separate pens in the Institute of Bacteriology, Mycology and Hygiene at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria, according to the Austrian Act for Animal Experiments. Negative control calves were inoculated intratracheally (Nos. 9 and 10) or endobronchially (Nos. 11 and 12) with sterile mycoplasma broth alone. All calves were examined clinically once every day throughout the experiment by measuring the body temperature, respiratory rate, pulse rate, and by auscultating heart and lung.
Approval of the animal experiments was given by the Austrian Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Verkehr (registration numbers: 68.205/78-Pr/4/1998 and 68.205/29-Pr/4/2000).
Necropsy and sampling
Twenty one days p.i. all animals were euthanised with sodium pentobarbitone and submitted for necropsy. Lung samples were collected from all calves for cultural isolation of M. bovis as previously described [20–22]. For isolation of other bacteria, samples were plated on Columbia agar (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) with 5% sheep blood and incubated at 37°C in 5% CO2. Identification of bacterial isolates was performed using standard identification methods. For histology and IHC, lung samples were collected from six standardized regions of the anterior, posterior cranial, and caudal lobes from both left and right lungs. From each of the six regions, two lung samples were fixed in 4% neutral-buffered formalin, processed and embedded for histology and IHC and a third sample was embedded in Tissue Tek (OCT compound, Sakura, Finetek Europe BV, Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands), placed in liquid nitrogen and then stored at -70°C until examined by IHC. In case of grossly detectable lesions, one sample was taken from an area with lesions and the other from a macroscopically unremarkable area. Both samples were fixed in 4% formalin. For culturing, two samples each from areas with gross lesions of the right and left lung were collected.
Formalin-fixed samples were embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). On selected sections, i.e. sections with necrotic lesions, Gram stain was used as well.
Antibodies used for immunohistochemistry on paraffin and/or frozen sections
Type or isotype
Mouse IgG1 and IgM
0.25% trypsin (37°C, 60 min)
Chemicon, Temecula, CA, USA
M. bovis Vspa A, C
0.25% trypsin (37°C, 60 min)
M. bovis Vspa A, B, C
0.25% trypsin (37°C, 60 min)
M. bovis pMB67b
Biozol, Eching, Germany
Biozol, Eching, Germany
0.05% pronase E (37°C, 20 min)
Bethyl Laboratories, Montgomery, TX, USA
0.05% pronase E (37°C, 20 min)
Bethyl Laboratories, Montgomery, TX, USA
0.05% pronase E (37°C, 20 min)
Bethyl Laboratories, Montgomery, TX, US
0.05% pronase E (37°C, 20 min)
Bethyl Laboratories, Montgomery, TX, USA
0.05% pronase E (37°C, 20 min)
DakoCytomation, Hamburg, Germany
α-chain of human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR)
0.01 M citric buffer (microwave 95°C, 15 min)
DakoCytomation, Hamburg, Germany
Quantitative evaluation of T lymphocytes and plasma cells
For CD4+ and CD8+ cells, 1000 cells were counted within the BALT of bronchioli in all six frozen samples of each animal by light microscopy and the number of positively reacting cells was determined. The number of positive cells was then calculated as mean values per μm2 of BALT area. The number of immunoglobulin-containing plasma cells per 1 mm2 of BALT of small bronchi and bronchioli was determined with a computer image analysis system (AnalySIS 3.1, Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions, Münster, Germany) at × 200 magnification. A comparative analysis of the number of CD4+ and CD8+ cells and plasma cells containing the different immunoglobulins in control and inoculated animals was performed with the non-parametric Mann-Whitney-U-test. The level of statistic significance was set at P < 0.05.
After inoculation, three calves (Nos. 3, 5, 8) had increased rectal temperatures with mean values ranging between 39.3 and 40.1°C. In these three calves, an increased respiratory rate was recorded exceeding 60/min (No. 8) or 70/min (Nos. 3 and 5). Furthermore, these three animals showed nasal discharge, coughing and reduced appetite until euthanasia. In the other calves and in all control calves the rectal temperature and the respiratory rate were normal.
Except from one calf (No. 8), M. bovis was detected by cultural isolation in lung samples from all other inoculated animals. From lung samples of six calves other bacteria were isolated and identified as Arcanobacterium pyogenes (Nos. 5 and 6), Pasteurella multocida (Nos. 3 and 4), α-haemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus (Nos. 1-4), and enterococci (No. 1). Cultural examination of the lungs from control calves was negative for M. bovis but positive for α-haemolytic streptococci, S. aureus and enterococci in two (Nos. 9 and 10).
The lungs of three control calves were macroscopically unremarkable. One control animal (No. 10) had slight consolidation in one apical lung lobe.
Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for wide spectrum cytokeratin
Histopathological lung lesions in calves inoculated with Mycoplasma bovis strain 1067 and in control calves
Suppurative bronchitis and
Obliterated bronchioli often had vacuolated epithelial cells and accumulations of neutrophilic granulocytes within their lumen (Figure 1D). Often partial to nearly complete loss of bronchiolar epithelial cells was present. Within the lumen of such obliterated bronchioles, tissue masses composed of fibroblasts and collagen fibres were found. In most locations, macrophages and sometimes a few neutrophilic granulocytes, were seen within these intraluminal tissue masses.
In one animal (No. 5), beside caseonecrotic pneumonia, there was a focus of coagulation necrosis, which was surrounded by numerous degenerate leukocytes, but without the presence of so-called oat cells. The outlines of alveoli were still visible and there were Gram-positive bacteria within the centre of the coagulation necrosis.
Between lung tissue samples from intratracheally or endobronchially inoculated animals no differences were found.
The lungs of all control calves had minimal to sometimes mild infiltration of the alveolar septae of apical lobes with macrophages, lymphocytes and few neutrophilic granulocytes, accompanied by mild focal suppurative bronchitis and bronchiolitis. The consolidated areas of one apical lobe of control calf No. 10 had mild suppurative bronchopneumonia.
Immunohistochemistry for M. bovis antigen
Distribution of M. bovis antigens in lungs of 8 experimentally inoculated calves
Exudate in lumina
of large airways
Epithelial surface of
Immunohistochemistry for CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes
Total numbers of peribronchially located CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and numbers of immunoglobulin-positive plasma cells
CD4+ T cells2
CD8+ T cells3
12.40 ± 3.19a
1.10 ± 1.72a
6.60 ± 3.46a
0.40 ± 0.16a
15.3 ± 6.16a
2.10 ± 0.98a
10.40 ± 2.50a
1.30 ± 1.30a
13.30 ± 7.01a
1.00 ± 1.00a
8.80 ± 1.76a
11.40 ± 7.26a
0.20 ± 0.13a
8.80 ± 7.15a
1.20 ± 1.12a
2.00 ± 1.84a
0.20 ± 0.23a
10.20 ± 3.88a
2.00 ± 2.45a
10.10 ± 5.15a
0.40 ± 0.04a
Expression of immunoglobulins
In both inoculated and control calves, the highest mean value of each group was found for IgA-positive plasma cells, followed by IgG1-positive plasma cells. The numbers of immunoglobulin-containing plasma cells are given in Table 4. Plasma cells expressing IgG2 or IgM were less frequently detected. The most pronounced differences were found in the apical lobes. Whilst the increase in IgA (252 to 298 cells per mm2) and IgM (493 to 517 cells per mm2) containing plasma cells was mild, considerably increased numbers of IgG1 (318 to 479 cells per mm2) and IgG2 (174 to 276 cells per mm2) containing cells were found by comparing the mean values of inoculated and control calves (Figure 2D and 2E). Level of significance, however, was not reached.
MHC class II immunohistochemistry
In sections from all inoculated calves strong MHC class II immunoreactivity was seen on lymphoid cells in hyperplastic BALT and on cells in alveolar septae. The positivity of the respiratory epithelia of the bronchi and bronchioli varied. In areas with interstitial pneumonia and suppurative bronchopneumonia the respiratory epithelium adjacent to hyperplastic BALT was strongly positive whilst the respiratory epithelium of bronchi and bronchioli in the neighbourhood of caseonecrotic lesions was only weakly positive or negative. The epithelium of the majority of obliterated bronchioli was negative (Nos. 3 and 8) or partially positive (No. 5). Intra-alveolar macrophage immunoreactivity was either positive or negative. Perinecrotic areas had MHC class II-positive cells, but the majority of perinecrotic located macrophages were negative (Figure 2F). Within several necrotic areas a positive reaction was seen (Figure 2F). In sections of inoculated calves with interstitial pneumonia and suppurative bronchopneumonia numerous MHC class II positive cells with dendritic morphology were found, mainly located in the subepithelial tissue of the bronchial mucosa. In areas with caseonecrotic lesions and obliterative bronchiolitis only a few MHC class II expressing cells with dendritic morphology were seen. In sections from control calves, few MHC class II positive cells were present in alveolar septae. Furthermore, respiratory epithelial cells were weakly positive or negative and a few MHC class II positive cells with dendritic morphology were seen in the bronchial mucosa.
The results of this study show that inoculation with M. bovis strain 1067 causes caseonecrotic pneumonic lesions that originate from small bronchi and bronchioli. The possible mechanisms, however, by which M. bovis induces these lesions, are not clear. Whether M. bovis infects airway epithelial cells is controversial  and recent findings in experimentally infected animals suggest that positive immunohistochemical staining with antibodies to M. bovis seen in airway epithelial cells is non-specific. Therefore, beside direct effects of M. bovis, certain factors released by the host's lung tissue could be involved in the development of necrotizing lesions in large airways. A recent study of lung sections of the calves examined in this investigation revealed the co-localization of M. bovis antigen and of strongly expressed inducible nitric oxide and nitrotyrosine by macrophages in perinecrotic tissue areas  indicating that the production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite is potentially involved in the development of necrotizing lung lesions. Increasing concentrations of peroxynitrite lead to the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogene species (ROS and RNS) which both have cytotoxic capacities. Therefore, both ROS and RNS are potentially involved in the development of severe necrotizing lung lesions seen in the animals of this study.
Obliterative bronchiolitis was seen in three inoculated calves of this investigation. The occurrence of bronchiolitis obliterans in animals naturally infected with M. bovis has been described by other investigators [2, 13, 24]. Furthermore, bronchiolitis obliterans has been reported in calves with chronic pneumonic lesions associated with spontaneous and experimental infections with other bacteria, e.g. Mannheimia haemolytica, P. multocida, Histophilus somni and Mycoplasma dispar, and with bovine respiratory syncytial virus [25–29]. The obliterative changes seen in M. bovis-infected calves resemble lesions classified as "bronchiolitis obliterans with intraluminal polyps" in man , which occur in cases of organizing pneumonia in humans and are known as "bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia" (BOOP). Organizing lesions in the alveolus, i.e. alveolar fibrosis, as described for BOOP in man  were not present in the calves with obliterative bronchiolitis of this study, but were described in calves spontaneously infected with M. bovis . Therefore, and also because re-epithelization of fibrous tissue within affected bronchioli was not present, the obliterative changes found in the bronchioli of the three calves of the present study might represent an early stage of organization. Recent studies on the lung tissue from these three calves demonstrated increased production of inducible nitric oxide and nitrotyrosine suggesting that nitric oxide and peroxynitrite are potentially involved in the development of obliterative bronchiolitis .
In a previous study, we demonstrated in vivo expression of M. bovis Vsps in lung tissue of calves infected with a clonal variant of M. bovis type strain PG45 during the first ten days p.i. . The present investigation revealed that there is long-term persistence of M. bovis in chronic bronchopneumonic lesions as demonstrated by bacteriology and IHC for antigens, i.e. Vsp antigens and pMB67.
The distribution of Vsp and non-Vsp antigens of M. bovis found in this study closely resembles the pattern described by other investigators who used different poly- and/or monoclonal antibodies to M. bovis [2, 3, 14]. With mAb 1A1, apart from the positive macrophages, positive reactions for Vsp antigens and also for the antigen pMB67 occurred less frequently than with the mAb pool. A possible reason for this is that the mAb pool detects both variable and non-variable antigens. A constant finding in lungs of all inoculated calves in this study was the presence of M. bovis Vsp and non-Vsp antigens in the cytoplasm of macrophages. This suggests that M. bovis is taken up by phagocytosis following opsonisation and that residual antigen, possibly after killing of the organism, persists detected by IHC. Another possibility would be that whole organisms of M. bovis, after being phagocytosed, survive within the phagosome of macrophages.
In vitro studies have shown that, except from variable surface antigens recognized as potential virulence factor of persistence in the host, M. bovis is able to generate a biofilm . Further studies to determine if biofilms also occur in vivo, i.e. on the surfaces of the respiratory tract in M. bovis infected calves, and if or how they contribute to the persistence of the agent in the host, are necessary.
In all M. bovis infected calves, hyperplasia of BALT was characterized by strong MHC class II expression of lymphoid cells within the BALT. This finding indicates ongoing stimulation of the local pulmonary immune system in response to persisting M. bovis antigen. Only few of the macrophages demarcating the caseonecrotic foci were positive for MHC class II, further supporting the hypothesis that, although M. bovis antigen is still present in necrotizing lesions, the antigen-presenting mechanisms are down-regulated at chronic stages of the disease. Nitric oxide is known to play a role as a modulator of immune responses. Therefore, the low expression of MHC class II by macrophages in perinecrotic areas of M. bovis infected calves reported by other investigators  and also seen in this study, possibly represents down-regulation of MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation as a result of the production of inducible nitric oxide and nitric oxide by activated macrophages. Beside macrophages, pulmonary dendritic cells play an important role in antigen presentation and induction of T cell-mediated immune responses in the lung . A previous study, in which quantification of MHC class II expressing dendritic cells in calves examined in this study was carried out, showed that statistically significantly increased numbers of MHC class II-expressing dendritic cells were present in the mucosa of bronchi and bronchioli of M. bovis infected animals . In this study, examination of lung sections revealed that, in caseonecrotic foci and obliterated bronchioli, in contrast to the respiratory mucosa, only few MHC class II expressing dendritic cells were present, possibly indicating down-regulation of antigen presentation in these areas.
Reduced numbers of MHC class II expressing dendritic cells could be the result of the production of inducible nitric oxide and nitric oxide by activated macrophages. Otherwise, lesser expression of MHC class II could be a non-specific consequence of chronic immunostimulation reflecting lower amounts of MHC class II-inducing cytokines, e.g. IL-1 and IFN-γ, at the chronic stage of the disease.
Experimental infections of calves have shown that M. bovis has both stimulating and suppressing effects on the bovine immune response such as stimulating the production of nitric oxide and TNF-α by macrophages, inducing apoptosis of lymphocytes, producing a lympho-inhibitory peptide, impairing lymphocyte responses to mitogens and suppressing the neutrophil oxidative burst [36–39].
The present study revealed a considerable increase of IgG1- and IgG2-positive plasma cells at 21 days p.i. among which IgG1-containing plasma cells clearly predominated. This finding is consistent with the results previously obtained by Howard et al. . In one study , increased IgG1 antibodies were found in the sera of experimentally infected cattle, but only small amounts of IgG2 antibodies. The authors concluded that the immune response mounted against M. bovis infection was skewed toward a T helper 2 immune response. It has been speculated by others  that, because IgG2, in comparison to IgG1, is the superior opsonin, the low IgG2 response may contribute to the chronicity of M. bovis infection. In vitro studies with bovine alveolar macrophages and bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes indicate that opsonisation, i.e. specific sera, promote phagocytosis and killing of M. bovis by phagocytes .
The immunohistochemical finding of many antigen-positive macrophages suggests that phagocytosis, possibly opsonophagocytosis, does occur in vivo. However, because in necrotic foci high amounts of extracellular antigen are found adjacent to phagocytes, the process of phagocytosis could be modified during the course of infection by yet unknown mechanism. Differentiation of B cells into antibody secreting plasma cells usually is due to cytokine secretion by helper function of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Statistical evaluation of the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in this study, however, did not reveal statistically significant differences between inoculated and control calves.
In this study, M. bovis was isolated from the lungs of 7 of 8 experimentally infected calves at necropsy. In the lungs of all calves inoculated with M. bovis, suppurative inflammatory changes of bronchi and bronchiole, often associated with suppurative bronchopneumonia, were found. Since pyogenic bacteria were isolated from the majority of these calves, they are possibly responsible for the development of the suppurative lung lesions. These results agree with the findings of other investigators that M. bovis is a predisposing factor in bovine respiratory disease allowing colonization of the lower respiratory tract by commensal pathogenic bacteria [3, 41]. Although caseonecrotic pneumonia is considered to be a distinctive lesion caused by M. bovis , the present findings support the hypothesis of other investigators that severe caseonecrotic lesions mainly occur when other bacteria are present . Co-infection of calves after spontaneous or experimental infection with M. bovis has also been described by other investigators . One report, in which the same M. bovis field strain as in this study was used, describes co-occurring P. multocida infection in 10 of 16 conventionally reared experimentally infected calves . The polymicrobial infection being present at 21 days p.i. in the calves of this study is complicating the interpretation of the role of M. bovis in the development of the local immune response in the lungs of infected calves. It cannot be excluded that the other bacteria isolated at the end of the experiment together with M. bovis participated in the generation of the immune response in these animals.
In lung tissue of the control calves, which were microbiologically negative for M. bovis, minimal or mild inflammatory changes including mild suppurative bronchitis and bronchiolitis, being associated with the presence of S. aureus, were seen. Therefore, it cannot be excluded that during the repeated manipulations necessary for collecting TBLF samples bacteria from the upper respiratory tract were flushed into the lungs of control calves animals and possibly also of M. bovis infected animals.
The three calves with caseonecrotic pneumonia and/or obliterative bronchiolitis had signs of clinical disease, i.e. increased body temperature and respiratory rate, nasal discharge, coughing and reduced appetite. In the other five calves, however, in spite of having lung lesions such as suppurative inflammatory changes of larger airways and/or suppurative bronchopneumonia, no clinical signs, i.e. increased body temperature, respiratory rate or pulse rate or abnormal findings by auscultating heart and lung, were recorded. These findings indicate that, at least under the experimental conditions of this study, respiratory M. bovis infections of calves can cause lung lesions, which, by applying conventional methods of clinical examination, are not associated with detectable signs of respiratory disease. The clinical signs and their presence in experimentally infected animals reported in the literature vary concerning type of signs and number of animals showing such signs per experiment. In one report, the occurrence of subclinical pneumonia, i.e. the absence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in spite of lung lesions was recorded in nine of ten calves 14 days after inoculation with M. bovis . These findings are similar to our observations in five of eight of the inoculated animals. Clinical signs associated with bovine respiratory disease vary and signs may be minimal or absent in cases with minor and/or chronic lung lesions . Other methods such as radiology, ultrasonography and lung function testing are considered as useful techniques for diagnosing clinically silent pneumonic lesions and for correlating clinical signs with pathological findings [44, 45].
Our findings show that infection of calves with M. bovis strain 1067 results in various lung lesions including caseonecrotic pneumonia. IHC for wide spectrum cytokeratin in two calves with caseonecrotic foci demonstrated that these lesions originated from bronchioli and bronchi. Our results show that there is long-term persistence of M. bovis as demonstrated by bacteriology and IHC for M. bovis antigens, i.e. VSp antigens and pMB67. The persistence of the pathogen and its ability to evade the specific immune response may in part result from (i) local downregulation of antigen presenting mechanisms and (ii) an ineffective humoral immune response with prevalence of IgG1 antibodies that, compared to IgG2 antibodies, are poor opsonins.
The authors thank François Poumarat, UMR Mycoplasmoses des Ruminants, Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments, Lyon, France, and Dominique Le Grand, UMR Mycoplasmoses des Ruminants, Pathologie du Bétail, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon, France, for generously supplying M. bovis strain 1067 and monoclonal antibodies 1A1 and I2.
- Caswell JL, Archambault M: Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle. Anim Health Res Rev. 2008, 8: 161-186.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gagea MI, Bateman KG, Shanahan RA, van Dreumel T, McEwen BJ, Carman S, Archambault M, Caswell JL: Naturally occurring Mycoplasma bovis-associated pneumonia and polyarthritis in feedlot beef calves. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006, 18: 29-40. 10.1177/104063870601800105.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rodríguez F, Bryson DG, Ball HJ, Forster F: Pathological and immunohistochemical studies of natural and experimental Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in calves. J Comp Pathol. 1996, 115: 151-162. 10.1016/S0021-9975(96)80037-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Srikumaran S, Kelling CL, Ambagala A: Immune evasion by pathogens of bovine respiratory disease complex. Anim Health Res Rev. 2008, 8: 215-229.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sachse K, Helbig JH, Lysnyansky I, Grajetzki C, Muller W, Jacobs E, Yogev : Epitope mapping of immunogenic and adhesive structures in repetitive domains of Mycoplasma bovis variable surface lipoproteins. Infect Immun. 2000, 68: 680-687. 10.1128/IAI.68.2.680-687.2000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Behrens A, Heller M, Kirchhoff H, Yogev D, Rosengarten R: A family of phase-and size-variant membrane surface lipoprotein antigens (Vsps) of Mycoplasma bovis. Infect Immun. 1994, 62: 5075-5084.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Behrens A, Poumarat F, Le Grand D, Heller M, Rosengarten R: A newly identified immunodominant membrane protein (pMB67) involved in Mycoplasma bovis surface antigenic variation. Microbiol. 1996, 142: 2463-2470. 10.1099/00221287-142-9-2463.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sachse K, Grajetzki C, Rosengarten R, Hänel I, Heller M, Pfützner H: Mechanisms and factors involved in Mycoplasma bovis adhesion to host cells. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1996, 284: 80-92. 10.1016/S0934-8840(96)80157-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Buchenau I, Poumarat F, Le Grand D, Linkner H, Rosengarten R, Hewicker-Trautwein M: Expression of Mycoplasma bovis variable surface membrane proteins in the respiratory tract of calves after experimental infection with a clonal variant of Mycoplasma bovis type strain PG45. Res Vet Sci. 2010, 89: 223-229. 10.1016/j.rvsc.2010.03.014.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Howard CJ, Parsons KR, Thomas LH: Systemic and local immune responses of gnotobiotic calves to respiratory infection with Mycoplasma bovis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1986, 11: 291-300. 10.1016/0165-2427(86)90008-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nicholas RA, Ayling RD, Stipkovits LP: An experimental vaccine for calf pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma bovis: clinical, cultural, serological and pathological findings. Vaccine. 2002, 20: 3569-3575. 10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00340-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vanden Bush TJ, Rosenbusch RF: Characterization of the immune response to Mycoplasma bovis lung infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2003, 94: 23-33. 10.1016/S0165-2427(03)00056-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Radaelli E, Luini M, Loria GR, Nicholas RAJ, Scanziani E: Bacteriological, serological, pathological and immunohistochemical studies of Mycoplasma bovis respiratory infection in veal calves and adult cattle at slaughter. Res Vet Sci. 2008, 85: 282-290. 10.1016/j.rvsc.2007.11.012.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thomas LH, Howard CJ, Stott EJ, Parsons KR: Mycoplasma bovis infection in gnotobiotic calves and combined infection with respiratory syncytial virus. Vet Pathol. 1986, 23: 571-578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Howard CJ, Thomas LH, Parsons KR: Comparative pathogenicity of Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma dispar for the respiratory tract of calves. Isr J Med Sci. 1987, 23: 621-624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Howard CJ, Thomas LH, Parsons KR: Immune response of cattle to respiratory mycoplasmas. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1987, 17: 401-412. 10.1016/0165-2427(87)90157-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Greber N, Spergser J, Fink P, Nigsch A: An outbreak of Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in dairy cows at alpine pasture. Wien Tierärztl Wochenschr. 2010, 97: 225-230.Google Scholar
- Hewicker-Trautwein M, Feldmann M, Kehler W, Schmidt R, Thiede S, Seeliger F, Wohlsein P, Spergser J, Rosengarten R: Outbreaks of calf pneumonia and arthritis on a farm in Northern Germany associated with isolation of Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma californicum. Vet Rec. 2002, 151: 699-703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Le Grand D, Calavas D, Brank M, Citti C, Rosengarten R, Bezille P, Poumarat F: Serological prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in suckling beef cattle in France. Vet Rec. 2002, 150: 268-273. 10.1136/vr.150.9.268.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brank M, Le Grand D, Poumarat F, Bezille P, Rosengarten R, Citti C: Development of a recombinant antigen for antibody-based diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis infection in cattle. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999, 6: 861-867.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Poumarat F, Perrin M, Martel JL, Lacombe JP: An outbreak of Mycoplasma bovis mastitis [in French]. Rec Méd Vét. 1985, 161: 649-654.Google Scholar
- Poumarat F, Perrin B, Longchambon D: Identification of ruminant mycoplasmas or immunobinding on membrane filtration (MF dot). Vet Microbiol. 1991, 29: 329-338. 10.1016/0378-1135(91)90140-B.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hermeyer K, Jacobsen B, Spergser J, Rosengarten R, Hewicker-Trautwein M: Detection of Mycoplasma bovis via in situ-hybridization and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrotyrosine and mangan-superoxide dismutase in lungs of experimentally infected calves. J Comp Pathol. 2011, 145: 240-250. 10.1016/j.jcpa.2010.12.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Booker CW, Abutarbush SM, Morley PS, Jim GK, Pittman TJ, Schunicht OC, Perret T, Wildman BK, Kent Fenton R, Guichon PT: Microbiological and histopathological findings in cases of fatal bovine respiratory disease of feedlot cattle in western Canada. Can Vet J. 2008, 49: 473-481.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bryson DG, McFerran JB, Ball HJ, Neill SD: Observations on outbreaks of respiratory disease in housed calves - (2) Pathological and microbiological findings. Vet Rec. 1978, 103: 503-509. 10.1136/vr.103.23.503.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fulton RW, Shawn Blood K, Panciera RJ, Payton ME, Ridpath JF, Confer AW, Saliki JT, Burge LT, Welsh RD, Johnson BJ, Reck A: Lung pathology and infectious agents in fatal feedlot pneumonias and relationship with mortality, disease onset, and treatments. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2009, 21: 464-477. 10.1177/104063870902100407.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haziroglu R, Erdeeger J, Gulbahar MY, Kul O: Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus somnus with pneumonia in calves. Dtsch Tierärztl Wochenschr. 1997, 104: 150-153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pirie HM, Petrie L, Pringle CR, Allan EM, Kennedy GJ: Acute fatal pneumonia in calves due to respiratory syncytial virus. Vet Rec. 1981, 108: 411-416. 10.1136/vr.108.19.411.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sorden SD, Kerr RW, Janzen ED: Interstitial pneumonia in feedlot cattle: concurrent lesions and lack of immunohistochemical evidence for bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2000, 12: 510-517. 10.1177/104063870001200604.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Colby TV: Bronchiolitis. Pathologic considerations. Am J Clin Pathol. 1998, 109: 101-109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Visscher DW, Myers JL: Histologic spectrum of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Proc Am Thoracic Soc. 2006, 3: 322-329. 10.1513/pats.200602-019TK.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McAuliffe I, Ellis RJ, Miles K, Ayling RD, Nicholas RAJ: Biofilm formation by mycoplasma species and its role in environmental persistence and survival. Microbiol. 2006, 152: 913-922. 10.1099/mic.0.28604-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Radaelli E, Luini M, Domeneghini C, Loria GR, Recordati C, Radaelli P, Scanziani E: Expression of class II major histocompatibility complex molecules in chronic pulmonary Mycoplasma bovis infection in cattle. J Comp Pathol. 2009, 140: 198-202. 10.1016/j.jcpa.2008.10.008.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Holt PG: Antigen presentation in the lung. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000, 162: 151-156.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thomasmeyer A, Spergser J, Rosengarten R, Hewicker-Trautwein M: Chronic respiratory Mycoplasma bovis infection in calves induces influx of dendritic cells into airway mucosa and stimulates proliferation of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. Edinburgh, Scotland, 128-129. Proceedings of the 24th Meeting of the European Society of Veterinary Pathology: 31 August-2 September 2006Google Scholar
- Jungi TW, Krampe M, Sileghem M, Griot C, Nicholet J: Differential and strain-specific triggering of bovine alveolar macrophages effector functions by mycoplasmas. Microb Pathog. 1996, 21: 487-498. 10.1006/mpat.1996.0078.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wiggins MC, Woolums AR, Hurley DJ, Sanchez S, Ensley DT, Donovan D: The effect of various Mycoplasma bovis isolates on bovine leukocyte response. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011, 34: 49-54. 10.1016/j.cimid.2010.02.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vanden Bush TJ, Rosenbusch RF: Mycoplasma bovis induces apoptosis of bovine lymphocytes. FEMS Immunol Medical Microbiol. 2002, 32: 97-103. 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2002.tb00540.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vanden Bush TJ, Rosenbusch RF: Characterization of a lympho-inhibitory peptide produced by Mycoplasma bovis. Biochem Biophys Res Comm. 2004, 315: 336-341. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.01.063.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Howard CJ, Taylor G, Collins J, Gourlay RN: Interaction of Mycoplasma dispar and Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis with bovine alveolar macrophages and bovine lacteal polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Infect Immunity. 1976, 14: 11-17.Google Scholar
- Gourlay RN, Houghton SB: Experimental pneumonia in conventionally reared and gnotobiotic calves by dual infection with Mycoplasma bovis and Pasteurella haemolytica. Res Vet Sci. 1985, 38: 377-382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ball HJ, Nicholas RAJ: Mycoplasma bovis-associated disease: here, there and everywhere. Vet J. 2010, 186: 280-281. 10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.02.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Poumarat F, Le Grand D, Philippe S, Calavas D, Schelcher F, Cabanié P, Tessier P, Navetal H: Efficacy of spectinomycin against Mycoplasma bovis induced pneumonia in conventionally reared calves. Vet Microbiol. 2001, 80: 23-35. 10.1016/S0378-1135(00)00379-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tegtmeier C, Arnbjerg J: Evaluation of radiology as a tool to diagnose pulmonic lesions in calves, for example prior to experimental infection studies. J Vet Med B. 2000, 47: 229-234. 10.1046/j.1439-0450.2000.00331.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Reinhold P, Rabeling B, Günther H, Schimmel D: Comparative evaluation of ultrasonography and lung function testing with the clinical signs and pathology of calves inoculated experimentally with Pasteurella multocida. Vet Rec. 2002, 150: 109-114. 10.1136/vr.150.4.109.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Le Grand D, Solsona M, Rosengarten R, Poumarat F: Adaptive surface antigen variation in Mycoplasma bovis to the host immune response. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1996, 144: 267-275. 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1996.tb08540.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rosengarten R, Behrens A, Stetefeld A, Heller M, Ahrens M, Sachse K, Yogev D, Kirchhoff H: Antigen heterogeneity among isolates of Mycoplasma bovis is generated by high-frequency variation of diverse membrane surface proteins. Infect Immun. 1994, 62: 5066-5074.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Poumarat F, Solsona M, Boldini M: Genotype, protein and antigen variability of Mycoplasma bovis. Vet Microbiol. 1994, 40: 305-321. 10.1016/0378-1135(94)90119-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.